In their recent article, “Jail-Based Competency Treatment Comes of Age,” Jennings et al.  reviewed the historical development of the model and presented the first large-scale empirical support for its effectiveness, which covered eight years of outcomes across four different program sites for nearly 2,000 Incompetent to Stand Trial (IST) defendants.
At initial (basic) training recruits from all services and most nations are subject to an intense environment where they are physically and mentally challenged throughout their waking day. Their civilian experiences and identity are systematically remodeled to fit the requirements of the nation’s services. Most recruits are able to cope with this extreme environment, albeit with some impact on their mental wellbeing, whereas those unable to cope either physically or emotionally are discharged from the Military through medical or administrative procedures.
The first case is described in Wuhan city of China in December 2019 and the disease (COVID-19) continues to pose threat to global health all over the world affecting more than approximately 476 million confirmed cases and 6 million deaths. Reliable and effective methods are taken a critical role such as real-time reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR test as a gold standard method, serological tests, and reverse transcriptase loopmediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) method is chosen firstly.
Sleep is an evolutionarily conserved phenomenon which has survived tremendous evolutionary pressures. Its disruption has deleterious implications for human health. The importance of sleep is illustrated by the fact that sleep deprivation in many animals leads to death. While sleep is tightly regulated by a combination of intrinsic and extrinsic factors it becomes progressively disrupted in old age and in neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer’s disease (AD), frontotemporal dementia (FTD), Parkinson’s disease (PD) and Huntington’s disease (HD).
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play important roles during development and responses to external stimuli. In Brassicaceae, the stigma epidermis accumulates a large amount of ROS. Moreover, regulating the stigmatic ROS status is crucial for Self-incompatibility (SI) mechanisms, to ensure self-pollen rejection while promoting compatible pollen. Here, scanning our transcriptomic data in light of recent advances in the Brassicaceae SI system, we identified Class III peroxidases that are highly expressed in mature stigma and might regulate stigma ROS homeostasis.
As the literature shows, the categorical diagnosis of personality has received numerous criticisms. Over the years, authors suggest that personality dysfunction is distributed along a dimensional continuum. Dimensional assessment of personality severity has been included in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Section III, and in the World Health Organization’s International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, where levels of personality functioning are posited to account for personality complexity
A New Adaptive Procedure for Estimating Perceptual Thresholds: The Effects of Observer Bias and Its Correction
Perceptual thresholds might vary due to different variables such as fatigue, fluctuations of attention, or sensory learning . Adaptive threshold estimation procedures are most effective by providing quasi-instantaneous estimates of an otherwise fluctuating sensory threshold.
Whether one lives to eat or just eats to live, the consumption, ingestion and digestion of foods and beverages comprise a complex system of intertwined signals and rituals.
“Nothing was as it seemed. I was not as I seemed…I was confronted by the possibility that perhaps the truest thing about me was a coiled identity, my irrealis self, a might-have-been self that never really was but wasn’t unreal for not being and might still be real, though I feared it never would”
Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) and Alzheimer’s Disease-Related Dementias (ADRD) are debilitating conditions that are highly associated with aging populations, especially those with comorbidities such as diabetes and hypertension.
Impact of Cellular Senescence on Neurodegenerative Diseases during the COVID-19 Pandemic: Suitable Targets Required to Eliminate Cellular Senescence
We recently reviewed the scientific literature that elucidates the impact of cellular senescence on COVID-19 complications.
Peritoneal Imaging may be the Last Piece of the Puzzle for Precision Evaluation of Peritoneal Function
Due to changes in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) policies in many countries and the impact of COVID-19, the importance and demand for peritoneal dialysis (PD) as a home dialysis treatment modality is growing prominently . However, peritoneal membrane dysfunction remains a bottleneck restricting the application of PD. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop new methods to accurately assess peritoneal function.
The Randomized intervention for Vesicoureteral Reflux (RiVUR) study was an effort by the National Institute of Health to identify the most significant question on the management of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR), i.e. Did antibiotic prophylaxis reduce the incidence of recurrent urinary tract infections (UTI) in children with VUR? During the initial phases of the RiVUR study, several similar studies were performed that seemed to indicate lack of benefit of antibiotic prophylaxis in VUR.
Experimental and hereditary defects in the ubiquitous scaffolding proteins of the spectrin gene family cause an array of neuropathologies
In the last century, starting from 1911 (Kulenkampff) , more than twenty upper limb blocking techniques had been described, each of these blocks with its owns strengths and weaknesses (complications). Personally, in the early 80s I still applied Kulenkampff’s supraclavicular technique modified by Moore ; in one week I had had two
The Impact of Fluid Resuscitation Timeliness in Geriatric Patients with Sepsis: A Single Center Retrospective Cohort Study
Sepsis is a key driver of worldwide mortality, representing close to 20% of global deaths in 2017 . Approximately half of patients hospitalized with sepsis are 65 years and older . Delivery of 30ml/kg of crystalloid fluid bolus within three hours of diagnosing sepsis remains a cornerstone of the Surviving Sepsis Campaign (SSC)
Evolving Policies and Practices for Organ Recovery and Non- Lung Organ Transplantation in Candidates Recovering from COVID-2019 - A Review
The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic affected Solid-Organ transplantation (SOT) policies and practices worldwide. The medical sector had to adapt to overwhelming concerns regarding patient care, infection-control, healthcare workers’ safety, and limited healthcare resources. Transplant-
New globally circulating SARS-CoV-2 strains are causing concern about evolution of virus transmissibility, fitness and immune evasion mechanisms. A variant emerging from the United Kingdom called SARS-CoV-2 VUI 202012/01, or B.1.1.7, is thought to exhibit increased transmissibility that results from replication 4-10 times faster than the original Wuhan virus (Wuhan-Hu-1).
Macrophages are important cells of the innate immune system and play a crucial role in host immune defense against infection and injury [1-3]. Macrophages form the first line of defense against airborne particles and microbes through multiple functions including phagocytosis, production of cytokines and chemokines, and antigen presentation.
HIV is a known risk factor for both ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. Even with the widespread use of antiretroviral therapy, stroke incidence is higher in patients with HIV compared to non-HIV control subjects.
Calcium (Ca2+) is an intracellular universal second messenger that regulates a variety of cellular processes. Many biological processes, including gene transcription, cell cycle, migration, and apoptosis, are affected by changes in intracellular Ca2+ signaling. Disruption of normal Ca2+ signaling can cause tumorigenic phenotypes.
Severe respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARSCoV- 2) is the virus responsible for the novel coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) and has resulted in the death of over one million people around the world. COVID- 19’s presentation is highly heterogeneous as cases range from asymptomatic to rapidly progressive resulting in low survival rates.
Newly Identified Function of Caspase-6 in ZBP1-mediated Innate Immune Responses, NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation, PANoptosis, and Host Defense
Caspases are critical for regulating cell death, immune responses, and homeostasis. These cysteine-dependent endoproteases cleave their substrates after certain aspartic acid residues.
Sepsis is highly prevalent, and is one of the main causes of mortality among hospitalized patients. Ethanol consumption in large quantities compromises the normal functioning of the body, leading to dysfunction of multiple different organ systems. The association between sepsis and ethanol is not fully understood, but it is well accepted that ethanol
Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is an important intra- and extra-cellular signaling molecule that can determine cell fate. At low concentrations, H2O2 plays roles in proliferation, immunity, and metabolism. Cellular exposure to higher non-physiologic concentrations of H2O2 can result in oxidative stress.
Neuroprotective Effects of Khaya Anthotheca (Welw.) C.DC (Meliaceae) Decoction on Neurodegeneration Induced by Estrogen Depletion in Rats
The cortex, hippocampus, and amygdala are among the brain regions where estrogens may act to improve cognition, memory and mood. In these regions, estrogens have many beneficial effects, including neuroprotection, neurogenesis, as well as neurotrophic, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory effects [1-2].
Improve the Efficiency of the Yaskawa Motoman MH5 Robot for Utilization in Robot-Assisted Orthopedic Surgery
Using robots in surgeries dates back to the mid-1980s. The robotic was applied in a wide range of biological and medical sciences such as clinical medicine, neuroscience, cardiovascular, dentofacial, and cellular and molecular life sciences. Orthopedic robots are much more widely used and complex in medical engineering sciences.
Older Versus Younger Men Who Have Sex with Men: Awareness of and Potential Barriers to the Use of Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) Medication to Prevent the Transmission of HIV
Men who have sex with other men (MSM) comprise the single largest group of individuals contracting HIV in the United States, accounting for more than one-half of all new HIV diagnoses.
Varying Presentations of EBV-associated Clinical Entities with Emphasis on EBV-Associated T- and NK-cell Lymphoproliferative Disorders of Childhood
The Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) is an endemic human herpesvirus, with 90% of people demonstrating serological evidence of prior exposure to EBV. In most cases, primary infections of EBV generate mild or asymptomatic clinical courses, but may present as infectious mononucleosis if contracted during young adulthood. In a small percentage of cases, Epstein- Barr virus infection may manifest as a noncanonical reaction, yielding a wide variety of clinical manifestations.
Stroke, Oxygen and Prehospital Care: A Commentary on Current Treatments and Opportunities for Improvement
Stroke is a common and very serious illness where timely evaluation and intervention can have dramatic effects on patient outcomes.
Cardiac sarcomeres express a variant of troponin I (cTnI) that contains a unique N-terminal extension of ~30 amino acids with regulatory phosphorylation sites. The extension is important in the control of myofilament response to Ca2+, which contributes to the neuro-humoral regulation of the dynamics of cardiac contraction and relaxation.
In the realm of DNA repair, base excision repair (BER) protein, APE1/Ref-1 (Apurinic/Apyrimidinic Endonuclease 1/Redox Effector - 1, also called APE1) has been studied for decades. However, over the past decade, APE1 has been established as a key player in reduction-oxidation (redox) signaling. In the review by Caston et al. (The multifunctional APE1 DNA repair-redox signaling protein as a drug target in human disease), multiple roles of APE1 in cancer and other diseases are summarized.
Physiology, Coagulation Cascade: Inherited Disorders, and the Molecular Phenomenon of Alterations in Hemostasis
The physiology of coagulation routes and paths is a cascade of several molecular phenomena and biological events which was classified into two categories based on their phenomena i.e., intrinsic and extrinsic, originated separately, consisting of various factors and features such as fibrinogen, prothrombin, plasma thromboplastin, Hageman factor, Christmas factor, and Stuart-Prower factor, participate in its physiology
Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is an incurable primary tumor of the body’s serosal surfaces: the pleura, peritoneum, pericardium and the tunica vaginalis (in men).
Flavopiridol (Alvocidib), a Cyclin-dependent Kinases (CDKs) Inhibitor, Found Synergy Effects with Niclosamide in Cutaneous T-cell Lymphoma
Flavopiridol (FVP; alvocidib), an FDA-approved orphan drug, has been studied in clinical trials under both single treatment and combination scenarios; several singleagent Phase I and Phase II clinical trials against leukemia, lymphomas, and solid tumors are active. To date, there have been more than 50 clinical trials involving FVP in the United States. Unfortunately, almost half of patients on FVP clinical trials showed serious adverse effects, implicating appropriate dosages need to be found and an alternative way to circumvent the toxicity of FVP with synergistic agents.
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is an eating disorder characterized by a fear of gaining weight and self-starvation, leading to life-threatening weight loss . It occurs predominately in women and frequently begins during adolescence.
Vitamin D and Insulin Resistance in Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome and Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia-a Commentary and Natural Expansion
In our previous focused review, the journal emphasized Type 2 diabetes (T2DM), excluding intimately associated disorders that should be considered integral components of the insulin resistance (IR) syndrome e.g., polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), and gout.
When creating the project, “An Escape Room Simulation Focused on Renal-Impairment for Prelicensure Nursing Students”  the author’s goal was to increase positive health outcomes for patients with acute kidney injury (AKI). AKI is complicated, but nurses who can help identify those at risk for the disorder and help initiate early treatment can improve patients’ results.
Alzheimer disease (AD) is a debilitating neurodegenerative disorder characterized by extracellular deposition of the amyloid β-protein (Aβ) and intraneuronal accumulation of the microtubule-associated protein, tau
Different humanized mouse models have been introduced to enable HIV-1 research in vivo, which has been made possible by the development of immunodeficient mouse strains.
Lower 24-Month Relative Survival among Black Patients with Non- Hodgkin’s Lymphoma: An Analysis of the SEER Data 1997-2015
Recent progress in the therapies used for patients with Non- Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) has improved survival. In 2020, 77,240 people were diagnosed with NHL. Although it accounts for 4% of all cancers, the incidence has been reported to be decreasing in the last few years. About 26% of people will expire from NHL (15% males and 11% females).Non-Hodgkin lymphoma arises from the clonal expansion of B, T, and natural killer (NK) cells. There is a significant degree of heterogeneity in NHL and this is likely related to different degrees of differentiation and maturation of these cells. These hematological malignancies exhibit different tumor behavior and are responsive to different chemotherapy agents which impacts clinical outcomes. There are patients who can be cured with current regimens; however, subtypes such as indolent and some aggressive lymphomas remain incurable necessitating treatment with new therapies including immunotherapy, targeted therapy, CAR T cells, and hematopoietic stem cell transplant.
Human body implants are rapidly covered by a conditioning film (which contains the biochemical moieties) when they interact with human body fluids and its components. This surface-bound biochemical blend elicits a chemotactic response to attract bacteria that are transmitted through infection or by contamination.
Plant virus nanoparticles (PVNPs) are increasingly recognized and studied for use in biomedical applications. PVNPs include plant virions with self-assembled capsid protein coats (PC) that encapsulate the virus genome, and virus-like particles (VLPs), a capsid without the viral genome.
The use of Percutaneous Achilles’ Tendon Lengthening as an Adjunct Procedure in Foot and Ankle Surgery: A Review
The goal of reconstructive foot and surgery for diabetic foot pathologies is to create a plantigrade foot that is braceable and has low risk of ulcer formation or recurrence. Experienced surgeons are cognizant that foot pathologies are defined in three planes: frontal, transverse and sagittal. The Achilles’ tendon is the chief deforming force in the foot along the sagittal plane.
The renewed interest in understanding how activated T cells alter their metabolism to support their growth and differentiation has led to several innovative advances in synthetic biology; culminating in a number of genetic and pharmacologic approaches aimed at improving the antitumor function of adoptively transferred T cells. Indeed, the growing field of immunometabolism has accelerated rapidly giving rise to exciting discoveries and exploratory studies revealing how T cells balance metabolic adaptations in response to intrinsic and extrinsic regulatory cues. Central to this body of work, we showed how chimeric antigen receptors (CAR)-induced metabolic reprogramming is an important determinant of efficacy and clinical outcome in blood-based malignancies.
Development of an Ultrasensitive HIV-1 DNA Detection Assay Based on an Automated πCode End-Point PCR System
Currently, around 60-75% of the HIV positive patients in developed countries on anti-retroviral therapy (ART) have undetectable plasma viral load using current diagnostic PCR assays.
Tracheostomy insertion is a common procedure used to support weaning from mechanical ventilation or following head and neck surgery. Resolution of the clinical need for tracheostomy is followed by a process of tracheostomy weaning and subsequent decannulation.
Second Generation Platelet Concentrates - L-PRF (Fibrin Rich in Platelets and Leukocytes) and Its Derivatives (A-PRF, I-PRF)-: Morphological Characteristics to be Used in Modern Regenerative Surgery. Experimental Research
Platelet preparations (PDPs) have gained success, mainly due to their high concentrations of biologically active molecules, such as growth factors and cytokines, which play an important role in tissue repair and reconstruction. Recent knowledge shows that platelets can play a new role in tissue reproduction and vascular restoration, as well as being the protagonists of inflammatory processes and immune system responses. They release bio-active proteins and other active ingredients that can affect a number of phenomena that promote cell consumption, growth and transformation (growth factors).
The Wnt signaling is classified as two distinct pathways of canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling, and the non-canonical pathways of planar cell polarity and Wnt/Ca2+ pathways. However, the scientific discoveries in recent years have shown that canonical and noncanonical Wnts pathways are intertwined and have complex interaction with other major signaling pathways such as hedgehog, Hippo and TOR signaling.
Adenosarcoma of Uterus with Sarcomatous Overgrowth and Rhabdomyoblastic Differentiation - A Rare Pathological Entity
Uterine adenosarcoma is a rare malignancy. It is defined as a biphasic tumor composed of both sarcomatous stroma and benign epithelial components. When the sarcomatous component occupies more than 25 % of the tumor then it is referred to as the sarcomatous overgrowth which accounts to about 10% of uterine adenosarcoma cases .
Supracondylar fractures of the humerus are the most common elbow fracture in the pediatric population and comprise nearly 60% of all elbow fractures. Supracondylar fractures most commonly occur in children aged five to seven. Historically, males had a higher incidence of supracondylar humeral fractures. More recent studies support a more equal distribution amongst males and females.
Scalable 3D Screen Printing Technology in Pharmaceutical Manufacturing - High Degree of Freedom in Terms of Drug Choice
Additive manufacturing has the potential to revolutionize the pharmaceutical industry, enabling the production of customized drugs for the mass market. However, concerns over scalability, low mechanical resistance, low printing resolution and limited material choices have so far hindered the practical application of current 3D printing (3DP)
For more than 35 years, the world has grappled with an AIDS epidemic that has claimed an estimated 35.0 million [28.9 million-41.5 million] lives and at its peak threatened global stability and security.
Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a rare subtype of non- Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL) characterized by cyclin D1 translocations. Outcomes are heterogenous, but the disease is generally incurable. High-risk patients been shown to have a median overall survival (OS) of only 37 months and 20% five-year OS. In some patients, the disease is more indolent; such cases are associated with leukemic phase of the disease, SOX11-negativity, and mutated IGHV. Additionally, even across SOX11 positive cases outcomes vary, with worse overall survival in MCL with cytoplasmic staining as compared to nuclear staining. For patients with indolent clinical behavior, observation is frequently employed, and large case series suggest the possibility of prolonged periods before treatment becomes necessary, as long as 128 months, and favorable outcomes even once treatment has been initiated.
In 1989, researchers proposed an intricate strategy in the field of adoptive cell therapy (ACT). Using the T-cell receptor (TCR) as a template, they replaced the coding sequence for the Vα and Vβ chains with the antigen- recognition domains from an antibody (VH and VL chains).
Clinical and Histological Proof that Surgical Incisions along Skin Folding Lines Result in Optimal Scars
In an early publication, we could show that striae distensae always develop perpendicular to the skin tension lines. In another article, we demonstrated that virtual skin tension lines are identical to the obvious Main Folding Lines; we recommended their use as optimal directions for orthopedic incisions, when inconspicuous scar formation is a prerequisite, as in children, younger adults, and women.
The Role of Selected Habits, Periodontal Disease and Oral Hygiene Status on the Occurrence and Prognosis of Oral Mucosal Lesions
Patients with an array of benign oral mucosal diseases comprising fibro-epithelial polyps, lipomas and lichen planus commonly present to Oral & Maxillofacial units. While managing their specific conditions, it is important to assess for their risk habits such as betel chewing which is associated with a high burden of periodontal disease as
The worldwide prevalence of dementia is estimated to be over 45 million people. Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia, responsible for 60-80% of cases.
Improved Wound Closure Rates and Mechanical Properties Resembling Native Skin in Murine Diabetic Wounds Treated with a Tropoelastin and Collagen Wound Healing Device
Chronic, non-healing, or slow to heal wounds present a significant and growing health problem in the United States, with an estimated 6.5 million people affected, at an annual cost of US $20 billion, with the highest risk groups represented by the elderly and the increasing prevalence of lifestyle diseases such as diabetes and obesity.
Toward Integrated Genomic Diagnosis in Routine Diagnostic Pathology by the World Health Organization Classification of Acute Myeloid Leukemia
Significant milestones and seminal discoveries during 1674-1966, by individuals who have made crucial contributions toward progress in the diagnosis of hematologic neoplasms as we understand today are depicted chronologically. It is notable that the path to progress in the understanding of disease and neoplasms initially took centuries for significant discoveries (17th-18th centuries), and subsequently, many decades (19th-20th centuries) for a breakthrough or a change from the prevailing norm.
The medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) is a thickened band of tissue that originates from the adductor tubercle and inserts on the proximal medial patella. It is expected that the MPFL, under patellar lateral subluxation, will fail at approximately 12-18 mm of displacement due to the failing of collagen based structures at 20% to 30% elongation.
Impact of Age on Prognostic Treatment Outcomes Among Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Patients: Evidence from Sri Lanka
Improving treatment outcomes for oral cancer patients is underpinned by their disease-free survival and overall survival while ensuring sufficient levels of quality of life [1,2]. There is research evidence to support surgical treatment with or without adjuvant radiotherapy is superior as compared to curative radiotherapy with or without
Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is caused by an insufficient iron supply for erythropoiesis that leads to a reduction in hemoglobin (Hgb) and circulating red blood cells. Iron deficiency is the most common cause of anemia in the United States (US) and occurs most often from blood loss and in patients with chronic diseases and inflammation. It was estimated that approximately 10 million people are iron deficient in the US, including 5 million who have IDA.
Antifungal Effects of PC945, a Novel Inhaled Triazole, on Candida albicans Pulmonary Infection in Immunocompromised Mice
Candida spp. are often detected from fungal cultures or mycobiome analysis of respiratory secretions, but are not usually treated since, even if detected persistently, the presence is assumed to be benign colonization unless invasive candidiasis in deeply immunocompromised subjects is suspected.
Bladder cancer is one of the most common and expensive cancers in the United States, with an expected 81,400 new cases and 17,980 deaths in 2020 alone. The incidence is increased among white men and diagnoses often occur in the 7th decade of life.
Cervical Cancer Prevalence in sub-Saharan Africa and HPV Vaccination Policy: A Public Health Grand Challenge?
“Women are not dying because of diseases we cannot treat. They are dying because societies have yet to make the decision that their lives are worth saving.”
Risks and Prevalence of Diabetic Retinopathy in Children and Young People with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is associated with microvascular and macrovascular complications.Duration of diabetes, poor glycaemic control, high blood pressure and proteinuria are reported risk factors contributing to the development of diabetes related complications.
Assessment of Attitudes toward HIV and AIDS among Undergraduate Students at a Historically Black University
HIV is no longer only a public health challenge, but also a global threat with a devastating negative impact that has claimed over 35 million lives globally. In 2017, about 36.9 million people live with HIV, and 1.8 million people becoming newly infected with the disease globally .
Resveratrol Treatment Reduces Neuromotor Impairment and Hearing Loss in a Mouse Model of Diabetic Neuropathy and Nerve Injury
In the peripheral nervous system (PNS), Schwann cells (SCs) are responsible for myelin production, which contributes to axonal protection and allows for efficient action potential transmission. Unfortunately, acquired and hereditary demyelinating diseases of the PNS are numerous and affect an increasing number of people.
Cell Death has long been considered to be an inevitable part of the life cycle of a cell and hence, considered a familiar consequence of cellular life.
Cigarette smoke (CS) is a main risk factor for the development of various diseases, either via direct exposure of tissues to CS [1-3] or indirect exposure of remote organs to CS extracts (CSE) (Figure 1) [4-6]. The harmful impact is induced by exposure to the toxic CS substances, each cigarette contains approximately 7,000 chemicals. Out of
SHP2 Inhibition as a Promising Anti-cancer Therapy: Function in Tumor Cell Signaling and Immune Modulation
The SHP2 phosphatase consists of one protein tyrosine phosphatase catalytic domain (PTP domain), two tandem Src homology 2 (SH2) domains (N-SH2 and C-SH2), and a C-terminal tail with two tyrosine phosphorylation sites (Tyr542 and Tyr580)
A Clinical Audit on the Follow-up Rate and Endodontic Outcome of Root Canal Therapy Performed by Dental Undergraduates
• Clinicians need to understand the importance of clinical audit and take the necessary remedial actions to enhance their knowledge and skills to carry out clinical audit and improve the outcome.
• Clinicians also need to recognize the importance of follow-up and emphasize on it to improve the long-term
Probiotics are generally defined as nonpathogenic living organisms that have beneficial effects on host health. The term “probiotic” means “for life” that is derived from Greek language. At first, probiotics was defined as substances that are produced with microorganisms and promote the other microorganisms.
The novel Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a highly contagious acute respiratory disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARSCoV- 2). Studies have reported oral lesions in patients with COVID-19 such as ulcers or blisters or diffuse reddish lesions affecting both keratinized and non-keratinized
The immune system is essential to host defense because it senses attacking pathogens and elicits protective immune responses. Although immune responses can protect against pathogens, uncontrolled immune responses cause tissue damage and other pathological consequences through their inflammatory mediators.
Cellular components are attractive targets for antiviral therapy because they do not mutate as readily as do viral proteins do [1-3]. The identification of CCR5 as an HIV-1 coreceptor [4-7], facilitated by the discovery of the antiviral activities of CCR5 ligand ?-chemokines , resulted in the development of new viral entry inhibitors to block CCR5 binding, including both- small molecules and CCR5 antibodies
In this study, the safety and efficacy of liver biopsies performed by endoscopic ultrasound (EUS-LB) were compared with those performed via the traditional percutaneous route at our Medical Center between January 2018 and August 2019.
The question of whether or not correction of vitamin D deficiency might reduce the risks of later type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has been under debate for many decades. The necessity of vitamin D for normal insulin secretion was first identified experimentally in the 1980s.
The shoulder complex is composed of three bony structures: the clavicle, scapula, and humerus, which are connected to form three synovial (glenohumeral, acromioclavicular, and sternoclavicular) and two functional (scapulothoracic and subacromial) joints.
Phosphoinositol 3 kinase (PI3K) defines a class of lipid kinases that have the ability to phosphorylate the inositol ring 3?-OH group in inositol phospholipids and therefore produce phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate (PIP3) . PI3K encompasses a family of enzymes divided into: Class IA PI3K which includes three isomers (?, ?, ?) and Class IB which include the group (?).
Environmental pollution is a significant concern in both developing and developed countries. The pollution load in the environment accumulates as a result of anthropogenic activity. Both organic and inorganic contaminants are hazardous to living things, and their incidence and persistence have risen dramatically in current years.
Viable but nonculturable (VBNC) bacteria are deeply dormant phenotypic variants that are characterized by a loss of culturability in conventional culture media, yet retain some viability markers. Thus, low metabolic activity, nutrient uptake, membrane integrity, and respiration are all detectable in these dormant cells. In 1982, the VBNC state was first described for Escherichia coli and Vibrio cholerae. Shortly afterwards, VBNC Salmonella enteriditis were found to regain culturability
Pregnancy and Hepatitis B Immunization: A Commentary on Maternal Knowledge and Vertical Transmission Risks
The paper Maternal knowledge of the risk of vertical transmission and offspring acquisition of hepatitis B, recently published in Annals of Hepatology, provides unique insight on a topic not previously studied in the USA. The research paper discusses important topics on maternal hepatitis B infections.
Advances in Functionalized Hybrid Biopolymer Augmented Lipid-based Systems: A Spotlight on Their Role in Design of Gastro Retentive Delivery Systems
Biopolymers have earmarked their importance in the biomedical and pharmaceutical applications. Researchers are still working for the facilitation of better therapeutic effects and medical benefits. In this context, several strategies are on a play like functionalization of biopolymers with physicochemical modification, functionalization of lipids with biopolymers, development of composites or hybrid systems for bringing together the benefits of individual moieties/systems
DNA microsatellites are tandemly repeating short (1-6 base pairs) DNA motifs, such as mononucleotide (A)n, dinucleotide (CA)n, trinucleotide (CAG)n, and tetranucleotide (AAAG)n, with each motif potentially repeating up to 50 times.
The failure to eradicate minimal residual disease often located at metastatic sites and/or the bone marrow niche continues to be a clinical barrier for successful treatments in cancer.
COVID-19, a global pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) has resulted in hospitalization in many cases.
In this review address the changes of LA structure and function in patients with CSFP according to our research and existing literature, therefore provide further insight into its clinical significance and pathophysiological mechanisms.
Inhibition of Autophagy and Immune Response: Alpha-fetoprotein Stimulates Initiation of Liver Cancer
Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is a tumorous marker for the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), it is synthesized mainly by the embryo yolk sac, fetal liver and the gastrointestinal tract. AFP belongs to the family of protein products of albuminoid genes, which are located in tandem arrangement in chromosome 4 (region 4q11-q13).
Hundreds of new clinical trials were recently launched using chimeric antigen receptor-bearing T cells (CAR-T cell). Concentrated on hematological malignancies, with a 90% overall survival rate for 2 months on acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL-B) in young patients after two or more lines of therapy . The most surprising results were the long-lasting effect of this therapy, resulting in more than 50% overall survival after a year follow-up.
The conjugation of polymers with multiple targeting ligands has become a popular approach for targeted gene and drug delivery. Functionalized polymer–drug conjugates are increasingly used to obtain biodegradable, targeted tools to further enhance localized gene and drug delivery systems. Folic acid (FA)-conjugated biodegradable polymers were tested as effective gene and drug delivery tools. Folate receptors are cellular markers highly expressed in various cancer cells and on
A Neuromuscular Integration Approach to the Rehabilitation of Forward Head and Rounded Shoulder Posture: Systematic Review of Literature
Forward head posture (FHP) and rounded shoulder posture (RSP) are common postural misalignments caused by muscular imbalance that lead to a variety of pain patterns in the neck and shoulder [1,2]. FHP prevalence ranges from 61% to 85% and is associated with RSP [3-7]. RSP prevalence ranges from 66% to 78% [3,5,7]. Importantly,
Rehabilitation Providers’ Experiences with Rapid Telerehabilitation Implementation During the COVID-19 Pandemic in the United States
Telehealth has been around since the 1960s as a healthcare delivery modality, though it did not gain widespread acceptance as a viable and reliable clinical tool until the late 1990s, when digital imaging and high speed, high bandwidth telecommunications technology became widely available . Historical boundaries to its acceptance and
The survival probability of early human conceptions is very low. At least 73% of natural single conceptions have no real chance of surviving six weeks of gestation . After six weeks, survival rates improve rapidly as 90% of the remainder will survive to term.
The advancement of chronological age is characterized by the progression of symptoms of chronic degenerative diseases that are triggered or accelerated in their progression by unhealthy lifestyles, decreased fitness and inadequate nutrition with decreased consumption of natural protective substances. Recent scientific evidence
Is There a Simple and Easy Way to Detect Singlet Oxygen? Comparison of Methods for Detecting Singlet Oxygen and Application to Measure Scavenging Activity of Various Compounds
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are known to exert both beneficial and harmful effects in the human body. Singlet oxygen (1O2), is highly reactive and considered as one of the ROS, although it is not a radical molecule.
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is an age-related metabolic disorder affecting 347 million people in modern society. Expanding its prevalence beyond developed countries, DM has emerged as a global public health issue associated with a high morbidity and mortality.
Artificial Intelligence in Pharma: Positive Trends but More Investment Needed to Drive a Transformation
Over the past few years, pharmaceutical R&D has become aware of the potential benefits of leveraging artificial intelligence and its collective subfields including machine learning, deep learning, data science and advanced analytics.
Rapid Inactivation of SARS-CoV-2 by Coupling Tungsten Trioxide (WO3) Photocatalyst with Copper Nanoclusters
At the end of 2019, a novel severe respiratory disease (coronavirus disease 2019, COVID-19) spread to Wuhan, China, it became pandemic in few months, with more than 41 million people infected worldwide as of October 2020. COVID-19 is caused by a novel virus called severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) CoV-2 to distinguish it from SARS-CoV that emerged in Guangdong province in China in 2003 and caused the severe clinical condition known as SARS. Like SARS-CoV, SARS- CoV-2 causes a severe inter
Editorial is usually a brief article, written by the editor that expresses publishers or journals collective views on a current issue. As an Emeritus Professor, I have taken the liberty of writing these editorial comments, at the invitation of the Editorial Board of the Journal of Diabetes and Clinical Research.
In this paper we consider the hypothesis, based on our human and mouse studies, that white matter connectivity can be altered by appropriate stimulation at the theta frequency [1,2]. In one study we used optogenetics to change the output of cells in the mouse anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) at 1, 8 or 40Hz.
This article is an extension to our recently published article in Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, entitled “Β-Sitosterol: Isolation from Muntingia Calabura Linn. Bark Extract, Structural Elucidation, and Molecular Docking Studies as Potential Inhibitor of SARSCoV-2 Mpro (COVID-19)”.
Challenges Regarding the Management of Gynecological and Obstetric Complications in Women with Inherited Factor XIII Deficiency
The medical care of patients with inherited bleeding disorders requires a greater understanding and attention, especially in women who can be exposed to specific hemorrhagic complications such as menorrhagia or complications during pregnancies and deliveries.
Cortical Visual Impairment (CVI): An Atypical Manifestation of Osmotic Demyelination Syndrome in a Child
Osmotic Demyelination Syndrome (ODS) is a unique process of selective demyelination and destruction of oligodendrocytes and astrocytes in specific areas of the brain that usually occurs a few days after an osmotic stress . ODS has been described most frequently in association with a rapid correction of hyponatremia, though it may occur with other electrolyte or metabolic abnormalities.
The immune system developed certain checks and balance to control or inhibit the reactivity against normal cells of the body. Uncontrolled immune responses to the non-self entities such as bacteria, viruses, parasites, or mutated self-antigens can cause an inflammatory reaction and autoimmune diseases.
Obesity has reached a global epidemic and it predisposes to the development of insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and related metabolic diseases. Current interventions against obesity and/or type 2 diabetes such as calorie restriction, exercise, genetic manipulations or established pharmacological treatments have not been successful for many patients with obesity and/or type 2 diabetes.
Inflammation can be caused by various environmental factors, including microbial infection and toxic chemical exposure. In response to inflammation, immune cells like macrophages, B and T lymphocytes, fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and various stromal cells secrete soluble polypeptide cytokine Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha (TNF?)
Plastic is a composite material made from organic polymers and can be freely molded into a film, fiber, or plate by heat or pressure processing. In 1839, Goodyear proposed the vulcanization of natural rubbers, while E. Simon discovered polystyrene
Chronic hypertension is present in 1-2% of pregnant women. Women with chronic hypertension are at an increased risk of maternal and perinatal complications when compared with normotensive women.
Blood Pressure Lowering May Decrease Cognitive Decline; But Are We Ready to Lower Blood Pressure in the Real World?
Dementia and hypertension are highly prevalent, epidemiologically related chronic conditions disproportionately affecting older persons; approximately 97% of persons with dementia and 66% with hypertension are over the age of 65.
Dendorbium Nobile Lindl. Alkaloids Suppress NF-κB and NLRP3 Signaling Pathways to Attenuate Lipopolysaccharide-induced Neuroinflammation
The important immune cells in the brain are called microglia acting as the central junction between neuroinflammation and neurodegenerative diseases. In patients of cognitive disorders and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) animal models, amoebic morphology and inflammatory pathways are activated to release numerous cells in the inflammatory factors by active microglia.
Multidirectional Benefits of Nanotechnology in the Diagnosis, Treatment and Prevention of Tuberculosis
Despite the curious advancement in medical science and therapeutics, tuberculosis (TB) persist the primary factor of mortality than any other infectious disease and socioeconomic disaster for millions of people around the world. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), World’s One-third of the population is infected with this disease and of these, 8 to 10 million people develop active disease and 2 million people die each year and the rest of the infected people remain asymptomatic.
Pain Outcomes with an Elliptical Regimen (POWER) Study: Identifying the Proper Dosage of Exercise for Therapeutic Effect in Persons with Chronic Back Pain
Low back pain (LBP) is one of the most prevalent conditions that will affect 70-85% of individuals at some point in their life . LBP accounts for 2.3% of all visits to the physician, and is the most common area of the body to experience pain . Exercise has been a mainstay for managing persons with chronic low back pain for almost 40
Liver biopsy continues to be the gold-standard with regards to diagnosis and staging of the majority of liver diseases. Serologic markers certainly have helped in diagnosing various autoimmune and viral-related liver diseases. Furthermore, laboratory testing and imaging studies such as liver elastography have allowed us to non-invasively assess fibrosis. Unfortunately, there are shortcomings with these forms of testing. False positives or laboratory errors will lead to misleading diagnoses. Situations can also arise during which there are diagnostic dilemmas, such as an obese patient with positive autoimmune serology and elevated liver chemistries.
Red cell membrane in patients with haemoglobin H (Hb-H) disease and other haemoglobinopathies is rigid and thus red blood cells are fragmented during passage through narrow capillary beds, especially through the splenic sinusoids and the liver [1,2]. These fragments are frequently seen in peripheral blood films.
Diet and Exercise: A Novel Cure for Asthma? - A Short Communications on a Non-Pharmacological Strategy
Behavioral interventions with regular physical activity, weight loss and diet have repeatedly demonstrated preventive effects in a wide range of diseases. Furthermore, an unhealthy lifestyle is a known predictor for increased use of medication and also the leading risk factor for global mortality.
Worldwide, obesity is a public health concern and a metabolic ailment characterized by excessive adipose tissue accumulation resulting from an imbalance of energy expenditure and energy intake . This disorder is a known risk factor for cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and metabolic
By deduction from complexity of (behavioral) models, we develop an entropic computational tool to distinguish erroneous/redundant eye movements from task relevant eye movements.
Primary Temporal Bone Meningioma Presenting as Chronic Mastoiditis and Sigmoid Sinus Thrombosis: Report of a Case with Literature Analysis
Meningiomas are common, primary brain tumors, accounting for up to 30% of intracranial neoplasms; they are usually slow-growing and benign . Primary extra cranial meningiomas are rare, and approximately 2% of meningiomas are located extra cranially . Furthermore, primary extra cranial meningiomas of the ear and temporal bone are exceedingly rare .
Exosomes are membranous vesicles ranging in size from 30–100 nm in diameter. They are secreted from multiple cell types into the body fluids through exocytosis, a process commonly used for receptor discharge and intercellular communications.
The COVID-19 pandemic has provoked a global, rapid increase of cases due to the high infectivity of the etiological agent, COVID-19 virus. In February 2021, over 110 million confirmed COVID-19 cases with 1 million deaths were reported worldwide (www.who.int).
When immune cells are activated, they undergo metabolic change in order to have sufficient energy to function effectively. The Krebs cycle is one of the most important pathways involved in this response and citrate, a critical component of this pathway, regulates carbohydrate and lipid metabolism.
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a heart muscle disorder and is the most common form of Mendelianinherited heart disease, affecting approximately 0.2% of the global population. In adults the disease is often inherited as an autosomal dominant trait caused by mutations, mainly in one of the 23 cardiac sarcomere protein genes.
Cholelithiasis is a prevalent disease, affecting 7.1% of the United States population; however, the vast majority of cases are asymptomatic and without consequence. It is estimated that less than one percent of patients develop complications, the most common of which include acute/ chronic cholecystitis, cholangitis, choledocholithiasis, and pancreatitis. An exceptionally rare complication is gallstone-related luminal gastrointestinal (GI) tract obstruction, reported to occur at rates of 0.3-0.5%, and comprising no more than five percent of small bowel obstructions.
Being a sophisticated and highly organized living system, mammals harbor a large number of biomolecular machineries which represent a dynamic and complex network of interconnections responsible for the effective operation, development and survivability of their body cells. Sphingolipids are a special class of lipids in eukaryotic cells, which have recently gained the attention of researchers because of their involvement in several fundamental processes of living cells, including proliferation
Cervix uteri carcinoma is the most common gynecological cancer worldwide. In addition, it is the fourth most common malignancy and the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death in women . The most common histopathological subtype is squamous cell carcinoma (85%).
Psychosocial Aspects of Drug Prescription: Recognizing These Phenomena to Improve the Quality of Clinical Practice
The medical prescription corresponds to a complex act, which requires knowledge, professional experience, specific skills, a great sense of responsibility and an ethical attitude.
Safety and Efficacy of s-MOX Regimen in Patients with Colorectal Cancer Who Developed Cardiotoxicity Following Fluoropyrimidine Administration: A Case Series
5-fluorouracil (5-FU), an antimetabolite in the fluoropyrimidine class, is the third most commonly used chemotherapeutic agent worldwide for the treatment of solid malignancies . Despite advances in novel cancer therapies, commonly used in combination with fluoropyrimidines, 5-FU remains one of the most effective and safe chemotherapy agents to manage colorectal cancer (CRC).
STARTTS Capoeira Angola Project Bantu: Combining Alternative Therapeutic Intervention with Sport for Traumatized Young Refugees: On the Way to Recovery
During the last decade, the world experienced an incredible increase in displaced populations; a staggering 70.8 million, which has been a direct outcome of war and human rights violations. This figure includes 25.9 million having been identified as refugees, and 51% constituting children below 18 years of age which has been documented as the highest figure in a decade.
Intentional facial expression of emotion named facial mimic is critical to healthy social interactions. Psychological and functional implications of the facial paralysis present a devastating management problem to patients afflicted because their face have an important challenge of facial muscles that are fundamental also for affective communication.
Molecular Detection of Plasmid - Mediated Quinolone Resistant Genes in Uropathogenic E. coli from Tertiary Referral Hospital in Tehran , Iran
Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) due to Escherichia coli is the most common bacterial infection. Fluoroquinolones are commonly used for the treatment of UTI because isolated microorganisms are frequently resistant to aminopenicillins and trimethoprim- sulfamethoxazole and fluoroquinolones are given orally .
First In silico Structural Model of Glucokinase-1 from Phytophthora infestans Reveals a Possible Pyrophosphate Binding Site
Phytophthora infestans is the causal agent of late blight disease, which affects potato and tomato crops worldwide, that brings about significant economic losses in the production of these crops. The PITG_06016 gene codes for one of the 7 glucokinases present in this phytopathogen.
Low-level Progesterone on the Day of hCG Injection Has No Detrimental Effect on the Pregnancy Outcome after IVF with GnRH-a Protocol: A Retrospective Study
To investigate the effect of low progesterone (P) level on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) injection on the outcome of in vitro fertilization (IVF) with GnRH- agonist (GnRH-a) long protocol.
The most important elemental-carbon-based materials include zero-, one-, two-, and three-dimensionalstructured fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, graphene, and graphite, respectively. These non-metallic carbon materials have properties that are similar to semiconducting metals.
Cancer is a worldwide public health issue that affects millions of people every year. In 2018 there were 17 million newly documented cases of cancer globally (8.8 million in men and 8.2 million in women), leading to 9.6 million deaths. Cancer is a vastly heterogeneous disease, with over 100 different types of cancer currently identified in humans; the most common types of cancer are lung, female breast, bowel and prostate, these four types account for more than 40% of all new cancer case
The gut microbiome or gut flora is a vast community of microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, protozoa, and fungi that inhabit the digestive tract of the human and other animals [1,2]. In the human body, bacterial species colonize into the oral cavity, skin, vagina, and placenta, however, the largest population of microorganisms resides in the intestine.
Family Planning Laboratory Review of Factors Affecting the Choice of Contraceptive Methods in Three Teenagers' Populations in Thrace, Greece
Contraception encompasses the concept of avoiding a pregnancy, and is aimed at women of reproductive age who, although are sexually active, do not want to achieve any pregnancy at their option fertility preservation and family planning
Arbovirology, Arbovirus, Arthropod-borne virus, these are informal name that refers to all virus types infecting “blood sucker” arthropod vector, capable to multiply the virus and to transmit it to vertebrates through their bite. These virus-vectors are essentially mosquitoes (male only), ticks and sandflies feeding mainly on mammals and sometime on other vertebrates (e.g. birds, reptiles).
Therapeutic compliance has been defined as the degree to which the behaviour of a person corresponds with the recommendations of the health professional .
In recent years, various discussions, disagreements and opinions are seen in the field of athletics. For example, in long distance such as marathon, the recommended way of running has changed. In other words, it has been said that landing with the heel is good before, but recently there is some information that the first-class runner is landing on the toe
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short double-stranded regulatory molecules derived from precursor transcripts called primary miRNAs (pri-miRNAs) and transcribing in the nucleus from chromosomal DNA by the RNA polymerase II. These pri-miRNAs were shown to contain internal imperfect hairpin structures which are processed by DCL (dicer-like) enzyme
The Global Rise of Chronic Diseases: Why Broaden the Paradigm to Include Tick-borne Illness and Environmental Toxin Exposure?
The incidence of chronic diseases is rapidly increasing worldwide. It has been calculated that, in 2001, chronic diseases contributed to approximately 46% of the global burden of disease and 60% of the total reported deaths with that number expected to increase to 57% by 2020, when chronic diseases will account for almost 75% of all deaths worldwide.
The use of molecular and genomic analysis of a cancer as a means to define a patient-specific treatment is interchangeably referred to as Precision Medicine, Personalized Medicine, or Genomically-directed medicine (herein, collectively PMED).
Reduced BCR Signaling and a Metabolic Shift Accompanies Malignant Progression of Follicular Lymphoma: A Lesson from Transcriptomics
Lymphoma represents the most common form of hematological malignancy in the developed world, accounting for 3.6% of all cancers and 55.6% of all blood cancers in Europe, with non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL) representing 90% of cases.
Attachment and mental health have long intersected within research and policy . Expressly, attachment relationships developed in the formative years are one of the most influential contributions to longitudinal holistic well-being 
Acanthamoeba was first described by Castellani and represents single-cell eukaryotes existing as either cellular trophozoites (25–40 ?m) or under adverse conditions (desiccation, lack of food, and extreme pH or temperature fluctuations), as dormant cysts (13–20 ?m). The cysts are known to be resistant to antibiotics, the effects of chlorine, and very low temperatures, and have been shown to maintain viability for over 20 years.
In January 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) classified COVID-19 to be a Public Health Emergency of International Concern and declared it a pandemic on March 11, 2020 . Over one hundred and eighty-five million people have been infected by SARS-CoV-2 and roughly four million have died worldwide so far
In the article, “Mental Health Framework: Coronavirus pandemic in post-Katrina New Orleans” , Shervington and Richardson offer recommendations about how to anticipate and address disaster-related, trauma exposures associated with the coronavirus pandemic
VA-Radiation Oncology Quality Surveillance Program: Enhancing Quality Measure Data Capture, Measuring Quality Benchmarks and Ensuring Long Term Sustainability of Quality Improvements in Community Care
High quality cancer care improves patient survival and quality of life. Radiation plays an important role in cancer management, given that over 50% of all cancer patients receive radiation therapy as either a primary treatment or for palliation. Ensuring quality of radiotherapy specifically, is therefore important to achieving optimal patient outcomes.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) methylation is a critical type of epigenetic modification that typically occurs in a specialized region of DNA, CpG-rich regions in the mammalian genome and is associated with regulating gene expression. Previous studies have revealed a strong association of change in DNA methylation with various diseases such as cancer, obesity and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).
A national perinatal survey in France in 2016 showed that 12.2% of women have instrumentally assisted vaginal births with vacuum extraction used in 49.8% of cases, making it the most frequently used form of obstetrical assistance.
Glucocorticoids (GCs) are defined by their role in maintaining glucose homeostasis and natural GCs are a class of corticosteroids secreted by the adrenal cortex. Cortisol is the most important natural GC in humans. Cellular cortisol levels are regulated by the tissue-specific metabolic enzymes 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 and 2 (11β-HSD 1 and 2); 11β-HSD 1 converts inactive cortisone to active cortisol, while 11β-HSD 2 has the opposite function.
Infectious diseases caused by microorganisms of the most varied natures and by viral entities cause millions of deaths every year. Around the world, viral infections have impacted civilizations’ circumstances since the earliest times, including the current panorama of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic known as coronavirus disease in 2019 (COVID-19). In this sense, in the last century,
Rituximab is a chimeric (20% rodent and 80% human) monoclonal antibody that binds to the CD20 antigen present on the cell surface and leads to depletion of mature B-cells [1,2]. It is the first approved monoclonal antibody to be used in the therapy of indolent B-cell non- Hodgkin’s lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia
Five months into the COVID-19 pandemic, the U.S. death toll from the virus has now surpassed 100,000 people. Many more cases remain nationwide, while an unknown number of patients currently harbor the virus asymptomatically. While health officials are now optimistic regarding the decline in prevalence and number of deaths due to COVID-19 and the possibility of a vaccine by the fall, we cannot lose sight of the bigger picture: the next pandemic.
Internists as well as cardiologists often receive echocardiogram reports which failed to offer a clear definition of the aortic stenosis (AS) severity due to discordant data regarding the aortic valve gradients and the valve area. Sometimes AS appears severe according to the valve area criteria, in spite of the fact that gradients across the valve are not in the severe range.
Multidisciplinary Acute Care of Central Retinal Artery Occlusion with a Stroke Paradigm: A Call to Action
Central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) is a painless ophthalmologic emergency with potential for irreversible vision loss. Similar to ischemic stroke, CRAO occurs when there is sudden obstruction of the central retinal artery, leading to ischemic injury to the retina and subsequent cell death. Continuous occlusion and ischemia of the retina progresses to permanent damage to retinal cells and loss of vision.
The variety of methods employed during the fabrication of MONPs can alter the characteristics and control the properties of the obtained nano-oxides. The reaction mechanisms and, therefore, the functionality of nanostructured MOx depend on their composition
DILI, HILI, RUCAM Algorithm, and AI, the Artificial Intelligence: Provocative issues, Progress, and Proposals
Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques represent a fascinating, provocative, and challenging discipline, are pervasive and of global importance. The European Commission summarized the current state in a White Paper on AI issues released on 19 February 2020, discussing various AI concepts that revolutionized many complex processes
With readily available cross-sectional imaging, asymptomatic localized renal masses (LRMs) are often incidentally found. The standard management for LRM has been surgical resection, however, detection of masses that are benign or with low metastatic risk has led to interest in minimally invasive alternatives such as percutaneous thermal ablation (TA) or active surveillance
Chest pain is the leading symptom in 5 to 8% of all emergency department (ED) visits and is also one of the major reasons of repeated ED visits, causing around 6% of these cases . Generally, in 15 to 25% of patients with chest pain, acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is the underlying cause.
Angioimmunoblastic T cell lymphoma (AITL) is one of the most common T-cell lymphomas, second only to peripheral T-cell lymphoma not otherwise specified (PTCL-NOS). Initially AITL was considered a non-malignant lymphadenopathy with immune hyperactivation, nowadays being classified as a PTCL.
Prospective Evaluation of Effect of Metformin on Activation of AMP-activated Protein Kinase (AMPK) and Disease Control in a Sub-group Analysis of Patients with GI Malignancies
Observational studies have demonstrated association of metformin with reduced cancer incidence and mortality in multiple cancer types, including gastrointestinal (GI) malignancies. Anti-neoplastic effects of metformin are believed through many mechanisms including activation of AMP-activated protein kinase, which controls mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) growth regulatory pathway.
The currently ongoing coronavirus pandemic, the SARSCOV- 2, interchangeably referred to as the COVID-19 infection, has in a short span of time altered the ways and means of almost all of mankind. So strong has been its effect that all human activity ceased in one way or another for a considerable time, led to significant loss of life and economic drain of.
Focal Aggregates of Normal or Near Normal Uveal Melanocytes (FANNUMs) in the Choroid. A Practical Clinical Category of Small Ophthalmoscopically Evident Discrete Melanocytic Choroidal Lesions
Multiple types of discrete melanocytic choroidal lesions are currently recognized, including benign choroidal nevi, choroidal malignant melanomas, patches of choroidal melanocytosis, and foci of choroidal melanocytes stimulated paraneoplastically by a systemic nonmelanoma malignant neoplasm.
Macular Microcirculation after Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment Repair Evaluated by OCT-Angiography
In the process of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD), retinal homeostasis may be adversely affected with resultant modifications in retinal and choroidal tissue. Hypoxia and nutrient deprivation along with inflammation at the detached retina may lead to morphological and microvascularity alterations. These changes imply that the functional status of the macula may not be entirely restored despite anatomical repair.
Proton minibeam radiotherapy (pMBRT) is an external beam radiotherapy method with reduced side effects by taking advantage of spatial fractionation in the normal tissue. Due to scattering, the delivered small beams widen in the tissue ensuring a homogeneous dose distribution in the tumor. In this review, the physical and biological principles regarding dose distribution and healing effects are explained. In the last decade, several preclinical studies have been conducted addressing normal tissue sparing and tumor control in-vitro and in-vivo, using human skin tissue and mouse or rat models. The major results acquired in these studies are summarized. A further newly emerging therapy method is FLASH radiotherapy, i.e. the treatment using ultra-high dose rates. The possibility of combining these methods in proton minibeam FLASH therapy (pMB FLASH) is worked out. Additionally, technical feasibility and limitations will be discussed by looking at simulations as well as preclinical studies and also pointing out new ways of delivering the desired tumor dose, such as interlacing. We will also highlight the opportunities that emerge regarding high dose radiation, hypofractionation and the combination with immunotherapy.
NOBOX is an ovarian specific transcription factor that plays an important role in follicular growth and survival. Nineteen NOBOX variants have been previously associated with premature ovarian insufficiency (POI). Disease severity in patients with heterozygous and homozygous mutations largely overlap however, hampering genotype-phenotype correlations. We recently reported the first case of biallelic truncating mutations (NM_001080413.3 (NOBOX):c.826C>T, p.(Arg276*) and NM_001080413.3(NOBOX):c.1421del, p.(Gly474Alafs*76)) of NOBOX in two Belgian sisters with POI.
The nature of gene mutations induced by ionizing radiation in germ cells and transmitted to offspring remains one of the most important problems in radiation genetics of higher eukaryotes. The data accumulated in this field were obtained by different authors under different experimental conditions which does not give a complete insight about the nature of radiation-induced inherited mutations at different genome levels (chromosome, gene, DNA).
Bacterial communication via quorum sensing (QS) molecules, as well as toxin-antitoxin (TA) gene modules located on bacterial chromosomes are well-studied mechanisms. Escherichia coli mazEF is a stress-induced TA system mediating cell death requiring a QS extracellular death factor (EDF), the pentapeptide NNWNN. MazF is an endoribonuclease specific for ACA sites. During adverse conditions, the activated MazF generates a stress induced translation machinery, composed of MazF-processed mRNAs and selective ribosomes that specifically translate these processed mRNAs.
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