The Duration of Mechanical Ventilation is the Main Cause of Bacterial/Fungal Superinfection in Critically Ill Patients with COVID-19 at Altitude
The COVID-19 pandemic is associated with a large number of patients spending long periods of time in intensive care units (ICUs), many of them suffering bacterial/fungal superinfections. However, both the incidence and cause of bacterial/fungal superinfections in COVID-19 critically ill patients remain poorly investigated in hospitals located at high altitudes (above 2500 meters).
The coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak occurred in China and spread to the whole world in a short period of time. The WHO (World Health Organization) named the viral disease as COVID-19 (Novel Coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2) on February 11, 2020.
Evolving Policies and Practices for Organ Recovery and Non- Lung Organ Transplantation in Candidates Recovering from COVID-2019 - A Review
The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic affected Solid-Organ transplantation (SOT) policies and practices worldwide. The medical sector had to adapt to overwhelming concerns regarding patient care, infection-control, healthcare workers’ safety, and limited healthcare resources. Transplant-
The COVID-19 pandemic started at the end of 2019 and remains carrying a health threat and significant economic consequences. Over the last two years, COVID-19 has been the main Public Health issue, and has impacted regular healthcare systems, with significant build-up of waiting lists and delay in optimum management of other serious medical conditions including heart diseases and cancer.
Higher Frequency and Poor Prognosis with COVID-19 Associated Cytokine Storm among Cancer Patients: Between Two Fires
At the end of 2019, the world faced a new disease, COVID-19 caused by SARS-Cov-2 and became a pandemic within few weeks. The fact that COVID-19 spreads very quickly and has
significant morbidity and mortality had devastating effects all over the world.
Exosomes, a type of extracellular vesicles (EVs), are secreted from cells and taken up again by other cell types. They have attracted attention as new intercellular communication factors involved in various biological processes. Multivesicular bodies (MVBs) are intracellular organelles that are sources of exosomes. Recently, molecular regulatory mechanisms of EVs and MVBs mediated by ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like proteins (UBLs) have been elucidated.
Nanotechnology is the art of science manipulating matter at the nanoscale about 1 to 100 nanometers, 10-9 nm ranging from a sheet of paper (100,000 nanometers thick) to a human hair (around 80,000-100,000 nanometers).
In silico Analysis for the Repurposing of Broad-spectrum Antiviral Drugs against Multiple Targets from SARS-CoV-2: A Molecular Docking and ADMET Approach
SARS-CoV-2 belongs to the genus Beta of the Coronaviridae family of enveloped single-stranded, positive-sense ribonucleic acid (RNA) with a genome length of 30,000bp. The virion is composed of various non-structural (RNA dependent RNA polymerase also known as RdRp) and structural proteins such as Spike (S), Nucleocapsid (N), Matrix (M), and Envelope (E) proteins.
The first case is described in Wuhan city of China in December 2019 and the disease (COVID-19) continues to pose threat to global health all over the world affecting more than approximately 476 million confirmed cases and 6 million deaths. Reliable and effective methods are taken a critical role such as real-time reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR test as a gold standard method, serological tests, and reverse transcriptase loopmediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) method is chosen firstly.
Peritoneal Imaging may be the Last Piece of the Puzzle for Precision Evaluation of Peritoneal Function
Due to changes in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) policies in many countries and the impact of COVID-19, the importance and demand for peritoneal dialysis (PD) as a home dialysis treatment modality is growing prominently . However, peritoneal membrane dysfunction remains a bottleneck restricting the application of PD. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop new methods to accurately assess peritoneal function.
A Machine Learning Study of 534,023 Medicare Beneficiaries with COVID-19: Implications for Personalized Risk Prediction for People Over 65
The global outbreak of COVID-19 has resulted in over 378 million infections and worldwide deaths have surpassed 5.6 million. In the United States, there have been over 75 million confirmed cases and over 886,000 deaths as of February 1, 2022.
The COVID-19 pandemic has now impacted the global population for over a year. It has been devastating for many and has challenged us all in many ways. While the advent of vaccinations looks to curtail the number of cases, multiple challenges to ending the pandemic remain, including the advent of variants, vaccine hesitancy, access to vaccines, and the impaired efficacy of vaccines in immunocompromised persons. Thus, it is still essential to continue investigating treatments for COVID-19.
“Nothing was as it seemed. I was not as I seemed…I was confronted by the possibility that perhaps the truest thing about me was a coiled identity, my irrealis self, a might-have-been self that never really was but wasn’t unreal for not being and might still be real, though I feared it never would”
Ketamine has long been used in the field of anesthesia . Its rapid and long-acting analgesic effects associated with its dissociative properties have also established its use in prehospital and emergency department patients.
Rehabilitation Providers’ Experiences with Rapid Telerehabilitation Implementation During the COVID-19 Pandemic in the United States
Telehealth has been around since the 1960s as a healthcare delivery modality, though it did not gain widespread acceptance as a viable and reliable clinical tool until the late 1990s, when digital imaging and high speed, high bandwidth telecommunications technology became widely available . Historical boundaries to its acceptance and
In January 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) classified COVID-19 to be a Public Health Emergency of International Concern and declared it a pandemic on March 11, 2020 . Over one hundred and eighty-five million people have been infected by SARS-CoV-2 and roughly four million have died worldwide so far
COVID-19 patients can develop various central neurological disorders, including loss of smell and taste (anosmia and ageusia, respectively), ischemic injury (stroke), encephalopathy (delirium), and encephalitis, but also peripheral damages such as Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS).
Colcorona was a multicenter, international study promoted by the Montreal Heart Institute, Canada, whose main objective was to test the effects of colchicine in non-hospitalized patients with COVID-19. So far, the majority of studies addressed hospitalized patients which is understandable since mortality occurs mainly among those individuals.
Socio-demographic Determinants, Patterns, and Treatment Outcomes of Dental Trauma Patients Treated at a Restorative Dentistry Unit, National Dental Teaching Hospital (NDTH), Sri Lanka
Traumatic dental injury (TDI) impacts the teeth and/or other hard and soft tissues within and around the mouth and oral cavity region . TDI are very common across the globe leading to 85% of patients having injuries in the oral region  which was revealed by a meta-analysis conducted in 2018 . TDIs are frequently presented as serious
Detection of Viruses and development of new treatments: Insights into Antibody-Antigen Interactions and Multifunctional Lab-On-Particle for SARS CoV-2
The Corona Virus disease is a severe respiratory problem generated via severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS CoV-2). The latest strain of the disease was deadly enough to halt the global routines of human development. In this context, a number of research studies have been conducted to provide knowledge and to combat with this severe illness.
In the article, “Mental Health Framework: Coronavirus pandemic in post-Katrina New Orleans” , Shervington and Richardson offer recommendations about how to anticipate and address disaster-related, trauma exposures associated with the coronavirus pandemic
Since December 2019, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) caused by 2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) has resulted in 89,000 cases of Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), formerly known as Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia (NCP) in China, including 2,450 deaths.
After one year in a pandemic, we mourn the loss of over half a million lives in the United States, and over four million worldwide, and remain concerned over the challenges facing the families of 35 million people in the United States, and 200 million worldwide, who have suffered from cases of COVID-19.
Body Mass Index and COVID-19: Likely Causes for Obesity and Undernutrition Correlation with Disease Severity
Coronaviruses are one of the viruses causing the common cold, a disease that has never had a cure nor any effective prevention. They form are a large family of enveloped, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA viruses that infect a broad range of vertebrates, and for which bats are believed to be an important reservoir.
Efficacy of Therapeutic Plasma Exchange Alone or in Combination with Ruxolitinib for the Treatment of Penn Class 3 and 4 Cytokine Release Syndrome Complicating COVID-19
Observations early in the viral pandemic of 2020 noted the resemblance between severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection and the hypercytokinemic state of secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (sHLH).
Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) mRNA vaccines have gained international acceptance and have been proven to be safe and effective [1,2]. In a study of 3,950 frontline healthcare workers with no previous laboratory documentation of COVID-19 ,
The Variable Immune Response to SARS-CoV-2 Infection and Potential Treatment with Combination IL-15 and IL-21
SARS-Cov-2 is the virus that causes the disease COVID-19. The disease has led to the worst worldwide health crisis in 100 years. While many patients remain asymptomatic, most patients develop a mild respiratory infection. Symptoms include cough, fever and chills, fatigue and body aches, headache and loss of the sense of taste or
Rituximab is a chimeric (20% rodent and 80% human) monoclonal antibody that binds to the CD20 antigen present on the cell surface and leads to depletion of mature B-cells [1,2]. It is the first approved monoclonal antibody to be used in the therapy of indolent B-cell non- Hodgkin’s lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia
Ectodomain shedding mediated by a disintegrin and metalloprotease 10/17 (ADAM10/17) modulates the function of immune effector cells and may be involved in the novel coronavirus disease COVID-19. Toll-like receptor 7/8 (TLR7/8) recognizes single-strand RNA from viruses such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19) during the innate immune response
Can Early Home administration of Azithromycin with Zinc Help Prevent Severe COVID-19 Disease Progression and Long-COVID?
The novel SARS-CoV-2 belongs to the Betacoronavirus family and contains a single-stranded positive-sense RNA genome. Similar to the two other coronaviruses, SARSCoV- 1 and MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2 is also likely to have originated in bats, which serve as established reservoirs for various pathogenic coronaviruses . Although it is still unconfirmed, the most commonly admitted hypothesis suggests that SARS-CoV-2 is transmitted from bats to humans via an unidentified intermediate host species (zoonotic transmission).
The ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic led to a high number of deaths worldwide as well as an overload of healthcare systems and an economic collapse. One of the reasons can be attributed to the lack of knowledge about the duration of infectivity at the beginning of the pandemic, resulting in hospital isolation of patients and
Increased Binding Affinity of Furin to D614G Mutant S-glycoprotein May Augment Infectivity of the Predominating SARS-CoV-2 Variant
The coronavirus disease (COVID)-19 pandemic has profoundly devastated human health and wellbeing all over the world, along with colossal setback to global economy in terms of soaring new infections, hospitalizations, ICU admissions, work losses, closures of businesses and institutions, bankruptcies, and precautionary measures
The COVID-19 pandemic has provoked a global, rapid increase of cases due to the high infectivity of the etiological agent, COVID-19 virus. In February 2021, over 110 million confirmed COVID-19 cases with 1 million deaths were reported worldwide (www.who.int).
COVID-19, a global pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) has resulted in hospitalization in many cases.
New globally circulating SARS-CoV-2 strains are causing concern about evolution of virus transmissibility, fitness and immune evasion mechanisms. A variant emerging from the United Kingdom called SARS-CoV-2 VUI 202012/01, or B.1.1.7, is thought to exhibit increased transmissibility that results from replication 4-10 times faster than the original Wuhan virus (Wuhan-Hu-1).
Severe respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARSCoV- 2) is the virus responsible for the novel coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) and has resulted in the death of over one million people around the world. COVID- 19’s presentation is highly heterogeneous as cases range from asymptomatic to rapidly progressive resulting in low survival rates.
Impact of Early COVID-19 Advice and Guidelines on the Blood Supply in Low- and Middle-Income Countries
In March 2020, the Asian Association of Transfusion Medicine (AATM) took the initiative to support and guide the 20 member and 5 associate-member countries in their efforts to continue their blood supply with minimal interruption or shortages during the pandemic. Within two weeks, they published a guideline and an instructive Aide Mémoire, which were also communicated with the major international blood transfusion organizations, WHO and the EU. This was echoed by a rapid appearance of national and international guidance documents.
Since the declaration of COVID-19 as a pandemic in March 2020 , there have been more than 100 million reported cases of COVID-19 worldwide and more than 2.1 million deaths .
COVID-19 and the Health of Illicit Substance Users: Preliminary Analysis from Illicit Drug Transaction Data
While much attention has been given to how COVID-19 patients are treated (or fail to be treated), the impact of the pandemic on illicit drug users remains largely undiscussed
At the beginning of Covid-19 pandemic, we proposed to use hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and intranasal interferon (IFN) a-2b spray to prevent SARS-CoV-2.
The outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has led to coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19); a pandemic disease that has resulted in devastating social, economic, morbidity and mortality burdens. SARS-CoV-2 infects cells following receptor-mediated endocytosis and priming by cellular proteases.
The COVID-19 pandemic has caused delivery of orthopaedic services to require extra consideration and substantial revision. Alternative ways to manage patients with urgent injuries have been instigated to minimize patient’s exposure to the disease, spread within the hospital system and reduce the overall impact on stretched resources.
Teledermatology Before, During, and After COVID-19: A Vital Tool to Improve Access and Equity in Specialty Care
The COVID-19 pandemic has placed unprecedented strains on our medical system as specialties have had to reconsider “essential” in-person services and find novel ways to remotely ensure continuity of care. One such modality of care includes telehealth services, which have experienced a rapid rise in utility with a reported 4,347% increase in telehealth visits from March 2019 to March 2020 .
Bacille Calmette Guerin (BCG) vaccine has existence of more than 80 years with its widest use among all currently available vaccines . BCG vaccine developed from a virulent attenuated M. bovis strain against tuberculosis (TB) by deleting more than 14 different regions in the genome of Mycobacterium .
When creating the project, “An Escape Room Simulation Focused on Renal-Impairment for Prelicensure Nursing Students”  the author’s goal was to increase positive health outcomes for patients with acute kidney injury (AKI). AKI is complicated, but nurses who can help identify those at risk for the disorder and help initiate early treatment can improve patients’ results.
The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by the new coronavirus of severe acute respiratory syndrome 2 (SARS-CoV-2), single-stranded, positive sense, spherical RNA virus with spikes protein that protrude on its surface giving the appearance of a crown, from the Latin corona. It belongs to the large family of coronaviruses (CoVs) and the genus β-coronavirus. COVID-19 can involve manifestations in the respiratory system, as well as other biological systems, as a intestinal.
Isolated Kidney Infarct and Lupus Anticoagulant Positivity in a Young Patient with Mild SARS-CoV-2 Infection
The incidence of thromboembolic events in COVID-19 is reportedly higher in intensive care unit (ICU) patients (29.4%) as compared to non-ICU patients (11.5%), while data on thromboembolic events in non-hospitalized, self-limiting COVID-19 is unavailable. Renal infarction with COVID-19 has only been reported in three patients who had severe infection, multiple comorbidities, and/or immuno-compromised state post kidney transplantation. Since the onset of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, guidelines for the prophylaxis and treatment of COVID- 19-related hypercoagulability have only been focused on hospitalized patients. Concurrently, risk factors and management guidelines for thromboembolic events in mild COVID-19 have remained unidentified. In this report, we describe a case of a 38-year-old male–with no medical history pertinent to hypercoagulability–who developed an isolated renal infarction one week after being diagnosed with mild COVID-19.
In the end of 2019, a large number of patients started suffering from a disease that includes symptoms which can be displayed as a severe pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome, in addition to multi organ dysfunction. These symptoms were detected in Wuhan, which is considered the capital city of Hubei province, with
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which started in Wuhan in December 2019, is a pandemic caused by the newly emerged severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) (genus Betacoronavirus, family Coronaviridae).
The Germ Theory of Disease was solidified in the 19th century by Louise Pasteur and Robert Koch. They systematically visualized, isolated, and quantified microscopic pathogens as causative agents of diseases and epidemics. Viruses are submicroscopic; therefore, they were discovered later as pathogens by indirect methods [1,2].
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARSCoV- 2) is a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA with genome size 26.2, and 31.7 kb coronavirus, covered by an enveloped structure, which is a major source of disaster in the 21st century. A typical CoV contains at least six ORFs in its genome. SARS-CoV-2 is the seventh coronavirus that is known to cause human disease.
Among all late complications of diabetes, those involving the foot have traditionally required more face-to-face patient visits to clinics . The COVID-19 (corona virus infectious disease) pandemic has resulted in the closing of most outpatient clinics for face-to-face consultations.
Quantifying Respiratory Airborne Particle Dispersion Control Through Improvised Reusable Masks: The Physics of Non-Pharmaceutical Interventions for Reducing SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Airborne Transmission
In light of the current pandemic from rapid transmission of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2 or COVID-19) and significant morbidity, there has been inconsistent medical guidance given to the public regarding the wearing of non-medical improvised fabric masks or face coverings to reduce the transmission of COVID-19.
Rapid Inactivation of SARS-CoV-2 by Coupling Tungsten Trioxide (WO3) Photocatalyst with Copper Nanoclusters
At the end of 2019, a novel severe respiratory disease (coronavirus disease 2019, COVID-19) spread to Wuhan, China, it became pandemic in few months, with more than 41 million people infected worldwide as of October 2020. COVID-19 is caused by a novel virus called severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) CoV-2 to distinguish it from SARS-CoV that emerged in Guangdong province in China in 2003 and caused the severe clinical condition known as SARS. Like SARS-CoV, SARS- CoV-2 causes a severe inter
Photodynamic Therapy for the Prevention of SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Dental Office: Could be Possible?
In January 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) identified a novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 in the Wuhan province of China, which has since caused a worldwide pandemic, with more than 21.2 million confirmed cases and over 760,200 confirmed deaths as of 14 August 2020. SARS-CoV-2 is a single-stranded RNA virus classified in
Potentials of Interferons and Hydroxychloroquine for the Prophylaxis and Early Treatment of COVID-19
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) causes a mild respiratory infection in most individuals. However, a portion of patients develop a severe infection resulting in the need for mechanical ventilation and ultimately death. Currently, the median infection fatality rate of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is estimated to be 0.27% .
The Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic Lockdown Measures on Diabetic Retinopathy Services in the East Kent Area of the United Kingdom - A Special Focus on the Pregnant Diabetic
The COVID-19 pandemic has shaped activities across almost all human endeavours. Changes are still ongoing to accommodate all the challenges it poses. The healthcare sector, working closely with governments of nations and regulatory agencies, has helped to control the impact of this highly contagious virus.
The currently ongoing coronavirus pandemic, the SARSCOV- 2, interchangeably referred to as the COVID-19 infection, has in a short span of time altered the ways and means of almost all of mankind. So strong has been its effect that all human activity ceased in one way or another for a considerable time, led to significant loss of life and economic drain of.
The novel Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a highly contagious acute respiratory disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARSCoV- 2). Studies have reported oral lesions in patients with COVID-19 such as ulcers or blisters or diffuse reddish lesions affecting both keratinized and non-keratinized
COVID-19 has challenged global health and affected many countries. The disease had infected more than 16 million people and killed over 650,000 ones by the end of July 2020. According to Sahu et al., COVID-19 epidemic is the third most common coronavirus in the 21st century, resulting in numerous deaths all over the world. It has caused severe psychological stress and increased hospital visits along with increased tiredness and burnout of medical staff. The disease has also raised many problems for the management of hospitals and diagnostic-treatment centers, so that many of them have no capacity to receive patients.
The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, Coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2), was first linked to cases of pneumonia of unknown cause in which they began to be reported in Wuhan, China. This represents a major threat to global health, and by the end of June, about 503 thousand deaths worldwide were found due to this disease. Coronaviruses are known for their great potential to cause systemic diseases, including changes in coagulation. Although it is still uncertain, studies point to the existence of a relationship between the severity of the case and the laboratory alterations that include the elevations in the levels of D-dimer and Von Willebrand Factor (vWF).
This article is an extension to our recently published article in Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, entitled “Β-Sitosterol: Isolation from Muntingia Calabura Linn. Bark Extract, Structural Elucidation, and Molecular Docking Studies as Potential Inhibitor of SARSCoV-2 Mpro (COVID-19)”.
COVID-19 is the new emerging viral infection that already cause global public health problem [1-3]. More than 220 countries/territories are already attacked and there are more than 17 million patients around the world
Dexamethasone: The First Drug to be Shown to Decrease Mortality in Critically Ill Patients with COVID-19
The precise role of corticosteroids for treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is unclear due to lack of randomized trials.
The prevalence of diabetes in COVID-19 patients ranges from 5.3% to 58% representing the second comorbidity after hypertension. However, when adjusted for age, diabetes prevalence among COVID-19 patients is similar to its prevalence in the general population.
Five months into the COVID-19 pandemic, the U.S. death toll from the virus has now surpassed 100,000 people. Many more cases remain nationwide, while an unknown number of patients currently harbor the virus asymptomatically. While health officials are now optimistic regarding the decline in prevalence and number of deaths due to COVID-19 and the possibility of a vaccine by the fall, we cannot lose sight of the bigger picture: the next pandemic.
While the global COVID-19 pandemic has challenged the entire humanity and health systems, it also triggered researchers to urgently perform clinical trials to assess the safety and efficacy of many agents and modalities to combat COVID-19. As of April 22, over 650 clinical studies have been registered both in USA and internationally. Results from these studies are also coming at a brisk pace in this unprecedented emergency.
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