Clinical Characteristics of Outpatient Adolescents Undergoing Ongoing Psychotherapy in a Greek Tertiary Hospital from June 2016 to December 2019
Background: Adolescents with mental disorders often have difficulty engaging in ongoing treatment. Dropout from treatment is common. Aim: This paper aims to explore the clinical characteristics of a cohort of adolescents with mental disorders who were stably and actively undergoing psychotherapy over a relatively long period of time (for at least four months).
Bacterial metabolism affects the effectiveness of antibiotics. Bacterial metabolism is linked to the ability of an antibiotic to be bactericidal or bacteriostatic because a bacterium can metabolize carbohydrates that affect its pH and its ability to use the proton motive force (PMF). When the pH is low, there is more availability of protons that can help to power the proton motive force needed for the efflux of antibiotics.
Negative Feedback Expansion of Tregs Caused by Endogenous IL-2 Limits the Activity of IL-2-based Therapies
Stimulating effector T-cells (Teffs) without inducing regulatory T-cells (Tregs) has been the primary goal of IL-2-based therapies for cancer. Recently, modified IL-2 designed for differential T-cell expansion for the treatment of cancer has failed in the clinic. We propose that treatments based on exogenous administrations of modified IL-2 are inherently undermined by a negative feedback loop, caused by IL-2 secreted endogenously from activated effector T-cells.
Allelic Variants on SLC6A3 Neurotransmitter Gene and Their Relationship with Personality Traits Scales in Egyptian Athletes
Human dopamine transporter gene (SLC6A3) is one of the neurotransmission genes that plays an important role in controlling the behavior and psychological reactions toward various physical activities. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the associations between SLC6A3 3’-UTR VNTR (3’VNTR) genotypes and eight personality traits in Egyptian athletes. One hundred athletes (50 males and 50 females) and one hundred non-athletes participated in this investigation either in individual or team games.
This study compares the association between psychosis, suicide, and violent behavior in patients admitted and discharged from the psychiatric ward. Methods: This study used a cross-sectional design. The experimental study was done with all the psychotic patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria upon admission and discharge from a teaching hospital in Malaysia. The study was conducted for a duration of five months from March to July 2022.
COVID-19 Vaccine Acceptance during Pregnancy: Lessons Learned and How to Design the Best Strategy to Increase Vaccination Acceptance in the Future
The present study aimed to study the vaccination acceptance of COVID-19 vaccine in the Hellenic pregnant population and make a high relative analysis of the factors that contribute to decision-making concerning the acceptance of the vaccine during pregnancy. Findings could be leveraged for improving the vaccination communication strategy to pregnant women to increase the vaccination acceptance rate.
Intracellular Hyaluronan Synthesis Impairs Hematopoiesis in Diabetes that can be Prevented by Heparin
Hyperglycemia in diabetes induces impairment of hematopoiesis, an important consequence in bone marrow (BM) that contributes to chronic complications in advanced diabetes. The alterations to blood cells associated with diabetes mellitus (DM) pathologies have been carefully and extensively documented, but the underlying mechanism(s) is still unclear. Our recent publication indicates that aberrant intracellular synthesis of hyaluronan (HA) by hyperglycemic dividing BM progenitors is the central mechanism involved.
Rib fractures are a commonly encountered traumatic injury and are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. They are a marker of severe injury and can lead to defects in the chest wall and severe pain which may hinder breathing.
Resveratrol and Astaxanthin Protect Primary Human Nasal Epithelial Cells Cultured at an Air-liquid Interface from an Acute Oxidant Exposure
Oxidative stress (OS) in the airway epithelium is associated with cell damage, inflammation, and mitochondrial dysfunction that may initiate or worsen respiratory disease. However, it is unclear whether exogenous antioxidants can provide protection to the airway epithelium from OS. Resveratrol and astaxanthin are nutritional compounds that have shown diverse benefits including protection against OS and inflammation in various situations.
Oxidative stress (OS) in the airway epithelium is associated with inflammation, cell damage, and mitochondrial dysfunction that may initiate or worsen respiratory disease. Redox regulation maintains the equilibrium of pro-oxidant/antioxidant reactions but can be disturbed by environmental exposures. The mechanism(s) underlying the induction and impact of OS on airway epithelium and how these influences on respiratory disease is poorly understood.
The case of a young girl with Dengue fever presenting with seizures and bilateral visual loss is presented. At the time of presentation, she had right hemiplegia and dysarthria but was not dysphasic. Fundoscopy revealed presence of macular and disc oedema in the right eye and vitreous haemorrhage in the left eye.
In their recent article, “Jail-Based Competency Treatment Comes of Age,” Jennings et al.  reviewed the historical development of the model and presented the first large-scale empirical support for its effectiveness, which covered eight years of outcomes across four different program sites for nearly 2,000 Incompetent to Stand Trial (IST) defendants.
Establishment of an Indirect Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay for Detection of the NS4 Protein of Bluetongue Virus
An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA) was established to detect the serological prevalence of bluetongue virus (BTV) infection in ruminant populations. A recombinant NS4 (rNS4) protein was used as the encapsulated antigen. Optimization of the iELISA included the encapsulated antigen, serum dilution, blocking solution, and working concentration of a horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-labeled secondary antibody (Ab) by the square-matrix titration test.
Sialyllactose Prevents Cartilage Damages via M0 Macrophage Maintenance in Yucatan Mini-Pig Osteoarthritis Model
Sialyllactose, known to be abundant in human breast milk, has anti-inflammatory properties, but its preventive effect on osteoarthritis remain unclear. Here, we demonstrated the efficacy of 3’ sialyllactose (3’ SL) and 6’ sialyllactose (6’ SL) in preventing osteoarthritis in Yucatan mini-pigs. Twelve female Yucatan mini-pigs were administered 0, 200, 400 mg 3’ SL or a combination of 200 mg 3’ SL + 200 mg 6’ SL for 12 weeks (4weeks before and 8 weeks after surgery); then, osteoarthritis was induced in the left knee by anterior cruciate ligament transection surgery. Kinematic variables were used to quantify gait analysis on the treadmill, and the degree of osteoarthritis was analyzed in the femur and tibia cartilage
Concomitant Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis and Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukaemia Responding to 5-azacitidine
Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare, clonal, haematological disease of myeloid origin involving infiltration of neoplastic cells resembling Langerhans cells in various tissues. LCH cells express normal Langerhans cell markers such as CD1a, Langerin (CD207), and S100.
Multiple Myeloma with Neutrophilia: Two Etiologic Pathways for a Rare Presentation of a Common Diagnosis
Multiple myeloma (MM) is a common hematologic malignancy, with 32,110 new cases diagnosed in the United States in 2019, resulting in 12,960 deaths. While neutrophilia
is also a common entity, it most often arises secondary to other etiologies, such as infection or inflammatory processes.
The adoptive transfer of T cells expressing chimeric antigen receptors (CAR-T cells) has revolutionized the treatment of hematological malignancies, providing unmatched clinical responses in adults and children with relapsed or refractory B cell malignancies.
At initial (basic) training recruits from all services and most nations are subject to an intense environment where they are physically and mentally challenged throughout their waking day. Their civilian experiences and identity are systematically remodeled to fit the requirements of the nation’s services. Most recruits are able to cope with this extreme environment, albeit with some impact on their mental wellbeing, whereas those unable to cope either physically or emotionally are discharged from the Military through medical or administrative procedures.
Patient Satisfaction and Perceptions Regarding Anti-Retroviral Therapy (ART) Services in Rural Southwestern Uganda
Patient satisfaction and perception of the healthcare services received contribute to compliance with treatment guidelines, retention in care, and adherence to recommendations. This is especially so in the treatment of chronic medical conditions such as HIV/AIDS. The success of antiretroviral therapy (ART) plays a fundamental role in determining the quality of life of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs).
Since the medical management of ectopic pregnancy (EP) was introduced by Dr. Steven Ory, and published in 1986 in the American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, diagnostic criteria have been established to predict its successful medical treatment with methotrexate (MTX), including its maximum diameter (MaxDia), its associated human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) level, and whether there was identified cardiac motion (CM).
The coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak occurred in China and spread to the whole world in a short period of time. The WHO (World Health Organization) named the viral disease as COVID-19 (Novel Coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2) on February 11, 2020.
Commentary on "Type II Toxin-antitoxin Systems Have a Peculiar Localization in Escherichia Coli Cells"
Bacterial Toxin-Antitoxin (TA) modules were extensively studied. They are located on extra chromosomal genetic elements as well as on bacterial chromosomes. They carry two genes. One encoding for the toxin, and the other for the antitoxin. The toxin is a stable protein, while the antitoxin is either RNA or a labile protein. They are divided into six groups, among them group II is the most studied.
The first case is described in Wuhan city of China in December 2019 and the disease (COVID-19) continues to pose threat to global health all over the world affecting more than approximately 476 million confirmed cases and 6 million deaths. Reliable and effective methods are taken a critical role such as real-time reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR test as a gold standard method, serological tests, and reverse transcriptase loopmediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) method is chosen firstly.
The article ‘Enablers and barriers to effective clinical supervision in the workplace: a rapid evidence review’ presents evidence from the international literature on effective clinical supervision. The review searched nearly 16000 international publications to answer the question: What makes effective clinical supervision? When in place and done well, clinical supervision has many benefits for the organisation, professional development and patient services.
Comment on “Retinitis Pigmentosa and Molar Tooth Sign Caused by Novel AHI1 Compound Heterozygote Pathogenic Variants: A Case Report”
Joubert syndrome (JS) is a rare congenital neurodevelopmental disease which is basically a primary Ciliopathy. It’s characteristic manifestation on imaging is so called ‘molar tooth sign’ in the brainstem and cerebellum. JS can involve multiple organs, mainly including retina, kidney, bone and liver. Clinical signs of early onset JS include hypotonia, developmental delay, breathing abnormalities, and ocular motor apraxia.
Beta 3-Adrenergic Receptor (β3-AR) Activation at the End of Sustained Ischemia and/or Early Reperfusion may Prove to be a Valuable Cardioprotective Strategy
The contribution of β3-AR activation towards ischemiareperfusion (IR) damage largely depends on the disease stage, severity, experimental model as well as drug specificities which should be considered when investigating β3-AR pharmacology for potential therapeutic applications. These conceptions largely contribute to the discrepancies of the subsequent role of β3-AR activation in the cardiovascular disease process.
Imatinib Induced Hypopigmentation and Neutropenia in a Patient with Gastric Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor
Imatinib is a selective inhibitor of the bcr-abl tyrosine kinase making it a potential treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), as well as a selective inhibitor of KIT protein tyrosine kinase, and PDGF receptor, and is the treatment of choice in patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs)
A New Adaptive Procedure for Estimating Perceptual Thresholds: The Effects of Observer Bias and Its Correction
Perceptual thresholds might vary due to different variables such as fatigue, fluctuations of attention, or sensory learning . Adaptive threshold estimation procedures are most effective by providing quasi-instantaneous estimates of an otherwise fluctuating sensory threshold.
Whether one lives to eat or just eats to live, the consumption, ingestion and digestion of foods and beverages comprise a complex system of intertwined signals and rituals.
The incidence and prevalence of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) are increasing worldwide and it is the 5th most common endocrine cancer in females.
“Nothing was as it seemed. I was not as I seemed…I was confronted by the possibility that perhaps the truest thing about me was a coiled identity, my irrealis self, a might-have-been self that never really was but wasn’t unreal for not being and might still be real, though I feared it never would”
Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) and Alzheimer’s Disease-Related Dementias (ADRD) are debilitating conditions that are highly associated with aging populations, especially those with comorbidities such as diabetes and hypertension.
Polyurethane (PU) foam is synthesised via a polymerisation reaction of polyol and isocyanate, in the presence of various formulations of catalysts and surfactants. For this reason, depending on the composition, PU foam can be tailor-made into flexible foams, semi-rigid foams, and/or rigid foams, resulting in a wide range of products with unique properties.
The development of direct-acting antiviral agents for the treatment of Hepatitis C (HCV) has changed the practice of treating patients with HCV. In particular, organ transplant recipients who have not previously been exposed to HCV are now able to consider receiving an organ from a donor who is infected with HCV, and anticipate effective antiviral therapy after transplantation.
Stroke is the second largest cause of death worldwide, with a world annual mortality incidence of about 5.5 million people, and it is also the leading cause of disability worldwide with 50% of survivors being chronically disabled.
The Randomized intervention for Vesicoureteral Reflux (RiVUR) study was an effort by the National Institute of Health to identify the most significant question on the management of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR), i.e. Did antibiotic prophylaxis reduce the incidence of recurrent urinary tract infections (UTI) in children with VUR? During the initial phases of the RiVUR study, several similar studies were performed that seemed to indicate lack of benefit of antibiotic prophylaxis in VUR.
The term Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF) was introduced in the 1950s by Dr. Kabat and Mrs. Knott. From the mid-1950s the PNF-concept has been in a progressive development clarifying the use of techniques, performances and clinical applications. The concept of PNF was originally developed by Dr. Kabat and Mrs. Knott for rehabilitation purposes. The International PNF Association (IPNFA) consider themselves to be the official successor of Dr. Kabat and Mrs. Knott.
In the last century, starting from 1911 (Kulenkampff) , more than twenty upper limb blocking techniques had been described, each of these blocks with its owns strengths and weaknesses (complications). Personally, in the early 80s I still applied Kulenkampff’s supraclavicular technique modified by Moore ; in one week I had had two
In spite of all efforts to reduce transmission of HIV-1, 1.7 million persons were infected in 2019 worldwide. Whereas in the developed countries the COVID-19 pandemic is reasonably controlled within 2 years because of the fast and successful development of vaccines, nearly 40 years after the first reported cases of AIDS due to HIV-1 and in spite of tremendous efforts to develop vaccines against HIV-1, there are still no vaccines against the virus.
Pregnancy Outcomes in Pregnant Women with HIV on Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate (TDF) Compared to Tenofovir Alafenamide (TAF)
HIV infection in pregnancy continues to be of significant clinical and public health importance [1,2]. The current statistics published by the World Health Organization (WHO) demonstrate that 38 million people are living with HIV in 2019, and 1.1 million (85%) pregnant women living with HIV received antiretroviral therapy (ARVs) during pregnancy and postpartum.
MAGIs: Junctional Scaffolds Linking Inter-Cellular Junction Architecture, Actin Cytoskeleton Dynamics, and Signaling Pathways
MAGIs (membrane-associated guanylate-kinases (MAGUK) inverted) are apical scaffolds conserved across evolution, which regulate cellular junctions. Low expression of MAGIs has been associated with tumorigenesis in a wide variety of cancers. This “tumor-suppressive” function of MAGIs has stimulated many studies to better understand the processes they control, and how their misregulation could contribute to cancer progression.
Microbial resistance to antibiotics has become a major area of research given that it caused 1.27 million human deaths in 2019. Methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) accounted for half these deaths, and lower respiratory infection is the most burdensome syndrome.
Human Gray and White Matter Metabolomics to Differentiate APOE and Stage Dependent Changes in Alzheimer’s Disease
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a leading cause of death and morbidity in the United States . The hallmarks of AD are β-amyloid (Aβ) and tau. However, studies have indicated that metabolic dysfunction may play a more pivotal role in the progression of AD . Glucose hypometabolism and mitochondrial dysfunction are well-known features of AD .
Expression and Localization of Phosphoinositide-Specific Phospholipases C in Cultured, Differentiating and Stimulated Human Osteoblasts
The osteoblasts contribute to bone homeostasis maintaining the bone mass, and intervene in bone injuries repair. Insights in the events leading to the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts might allow uncover potential molecular targets to control the complex mechanisms underlying bone remodeling. Signal transduction pathways contribute to the differentiation and metabolic activities of osteoblasts, with special regard to calcium-related signaling, including the Phosphoinositide (PI) pathway.
Differentiation and Subtype Specification of Enteric Neurons: Current Knowledge of Transcription Factors, Signaling Molecules and Signaling Pathways Involved
The enteric nervous system is the largest component of the autonomic nervous system. It contains a broad network of interconnected plexuses and enteric neuronal subtypes which are in charge of the normal functioning of the gastrointestinal tract. Vagal and sacral neural crest cells are at the basis of the enteric nervous system development. These cells undergo multiple processes such as migration, proliferation and differentiation to finally form a functional enteric nervous system.
Fostemsavir in Heavily Treatment-Experienced Individuals Living with HIV-1: Insights from the Phase 3 BRIGHTE Study
Fostemsavir (Rukobia™, ViiV Healthcare, Research Triangle Park, NC), a prodrug of the first-in-class attachment inhibitor temsavir, was developed to provide a much-needed new therapeutic option for heavily treatment-experienced (HTE) people living with HIV-1 (PLWH) who are unable to form a suppressive regimen from remaining viable antiretroviral (ARV) agents because of multidrug resistance, contraindications, prior intolerance, or other safety considerations.
Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a combination of antiretroviral medications, most commonly prescribed as two co-formulated antiretrovirals, taken as a single tablet daily to significantly reduce the risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in individuals at high risk.
Discovery of New Candidate Genes for Anorexia Nervosa through Integration of eQTLs with Summary Statistics
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a neuropsychic syndrome characterized by restriction of energy intake relative to requirements, abnormally low body weight and fear of weight gain, resulting in extreme emaciation and even death .
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which started in Wuhan in December 2019, is a pandemic caused by the newly emerged severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) (genus Betacoronavirus, family Coronaviridae).
A Rodent Lumbosacral Spinal Cord Injury Model Reflecting Neurological and Urological Deficits of Humans
Spinal cord injury (SCI) to the terminal segments of the spinal cord causes severe disruption of the neural circuitry of the bladder, resulting in neurogenic underactive bladder (nUAB). We developed a rodent lumbosacral injury model to investigate the effects of bladder function and structure.
In the Mind of the US Olympic Athletes; Longevity Advantage and Its Relation to Nervous System Disorders and Mental Illness
In a recent study of 8124 US Olympic athletes, Antero et al.  found that the US Olympic athletes live 5 years longer than their general counterparts.
Cancer Stem Cells, Together with Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Other Cooperative Cells, Govern the Initiation and Development of Cancer
Until the end of last century, the origin and development of cancers were mostly attributed to the proliferation of their active cells, operative in collaboration with non-cancer cells of the patients. In particular, an important role was attributed to cells now recognized as mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), first considered a few decades ago. Initially, however, the role attributed to these cells was only limited.
Upper extremity (UE) exoskeletons were developed for industrial applications where assistive force enhancement was needed, but there have also been developments for use in telemanipulation and virtual reality, clinical applications such as assistance in orthopedic surgery, and orthopedic rehabilitation.
Vinpocetine was originally discovered and marketed under the trade name Cavinton around 1978. Vinpocetine is a synthetic derivative of the vincamine molecule which is an alkaloid extracted from the periwinkle plant, Vinca minor . It has been clinically used in many Asian and Europe countries for preventing and treating neurological
Uromodulin (UMOD) is a glycoprotein expressed by the epithelial cells of the thick ascending limb of Henle’s loop in the kidney. Research has shown that increased uromodulin expression may be associated with lower risk of cardiovascular disease in adults.
Vascular anomalies are quite common lesions. They are frequently encountered in the pediatric population, being present at birth or developing later, during infancy, childhood, or adolescence. Most of these lesions are benign. Nevertheless, even benign lesions may exhibit significant morbidity without idoneous management .
The COVID-19 pandemic has caused delivery of orthopaedic services to require extra consideration and substantial revision. Alternative ways to manage patients with urgent injuries have been instigated to minimize patient’s exposure to the disease, spread within the hospital system and reduce the overall impact on stretched resources.
Validation of a New Test for Assessing the Quality of Life Perceived in Patients with Type 1 Diabetes
The World Health Organization defines quality of life (QoL) as “the perception that an individual has of his life, in the context of the culture in which he lives, integrating personal goals, expectations and concerns, well-being and discomfort”.
When creating the project, “An Escape Room Simulation Focused on Renal-Impairment for Prelicensure Nursing Students”  the author’s goal was to increase positive health outcomes for patients with acute kidney injury (AKI). AKI is complicated, but nurses who can help identify those at risk for the disorder and help initiate early treatment can improve patients’ results.
A Protocol for the Generation of Treatment-naïve Biopsy-derived Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma and Diffuse Midline Glioma Models
Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is an aggressive brain tumor that arises in the ventral pons during middle childhood.
Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) mRNA vaccines have gained international acceptance and have been proven to be safe and effective [1,2]. In a study of 3,950 frontline healthcare workers with no previous laboratory documentation of COVID-19 ,
Lower 24-Month Relative Survival among Black Patients with Non- Hodgkin’s Lymphoma: An Analysis of the SEER Data 1997-2015
Recent progress in the therapies used for patients with Non- Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) has improved survival. In 2020, 77,240 people were diagnosed with NHL. Although it accounts for 4% of all cancers, the incidence has been reported to be decreasing in the last few years. About 26% of people will expire from NHL (15% males and 11% females).Non-Hodgkin lymphoma arises from the clonal expansion of B, T, and natural killer (NK) cells. There is a significant degree of heterogeneity in NHL and this is likely related to different degrees of differentiation and maturation of these cells. These hematological malignancies exhibit different tumor behavior and are responsive to different chemotherapy agents which impacts clinical outcomes. There are patients who can be cured with current regimens; however, subtypes such as indolent and some aggressive lymphomas remain incurable necessitating treatment with new therapies including immunotherapy, targeted therapy, CAR T cells, and hematopoietic stem cell transplant.
M1 and M2 Macrophages Polarization via mTORC1 Influences Innate Immunity and Outcome of Ehrlichia Infection
Macrophages are innate immune cells that play a key role in regulation of innate and adaptive immune responses against infections with several pathogens as they respond to pathogens and tissue injury, serve as antigen presenting cells priming the adaptive immune response, drive inflammation and host defense as well as repairing
After thousands of years of gender conflicts, the world now stands at the beginning of the feminine era, when women will rise to their proper standing, and the entire world will experience the harmony between men and women.
The Odyssey of Alpha-synuclein and Neuroinflammatory Mediators as Potential Candidates in the Aetiology of Parkinsons Disease
The neurodegenerative disorder Parkinson’s disease (PD) is hallmarked by the presence of cytoplasmic inclusions, Lewy body (LB) and ravaged dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc).
The neuropeptide Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide (CGRP) is a 37-amino acid peptide, with a wide-range of biological activities including vasodilation, neurogenic inflammation, immune function and hypertension. In addition to these various roles, it has also been heavily implicated in metabolic disease, with roles in feeding, energy dissipation processes and pancreatic β-cell insulin secretion.
Plant virus nanoparticles (PVNPs) are increasingly recognized and studied for use in biomedical applications. PVNPs include plant virions with self-assembled capsid protein coats (PC) that encapsulate the virus genome, and virus-like particles (VLPs), a capsid without the viral genome.
The use of Percutaneous Achilles’ Tendon Lengthening as an Adjunct Procedure in Foot and Ankle Surgery: A Review
The goal of reconstructive foot and surgery for diabetic foot pathologies is to create a plantigrade foot that is braceable and has low risk of ulcer formation or recurrence. Experienced surgeons are cognizant that foot pathologies are defined in three planes: frontal, transverse and sagittal. The Achilles’ tendon is the chief deforming force in the foot along the sagittal plane.
Gemcitabine is a synthetic pyrimidine nucleoside analogue which is administered intravenously as a chemotherapeutic to treat numerous cancers. Gemcitabine requires transport into cells and activation by phosphorylation, the resulting gemcitabine triphosphate is incorporated into newly synthesized DNA during cell division, inhibiting further DNA synthesis and causing cell death. Gemcitabine is used to treat cancers including those of the pancreas, lung, breast, colon, and ovary either as first or second line treatments as a single agent or in combination.
Development of an Ultrasensitive HIV-1 DNA Detection Assay Based on an Automated πCode End-Point PCR System
Currently, around 60-75% of the HIV positive patients in developed countries on anti-retroviral therapy (ART) have undetectable plasma viral load using current diagnostic PCR assays.
A 56-year-old Caucasian man was referred to an academic medical center for consideration of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). One year earlier, he had seen his primary care physician for increased fatigue and decreased exercise tolerance, and a complete blood cell count showed a total white blood cell count of 2500/μL, hemoglobin of 7.2g/dL, and a platelet count of 110,000/μL. The white blood cell differential showed an absolute neutrophil count of 900/μL. The patient was referred to a hematologist who performed a bone marrow biopsy that showed a myelodysplastic syndrome with del(5q).
News About the Extracellular Vesicles from Mesenchymal Stem Cells: Functions, Therapy and Protection from COVID-19
The present Commentary is a critical follow-up of a previous review about “Extracellular vesicles, news about their role in immune cells: physiology, pathology and diseases”, appeared in Clinical and Experimental Immunology last June 2019 .
Breast cancer is the most frequent malignancy in females. Due to its major impact on the population, this disease represents a critical public health problem that requires further research at the molecular level to define its prognosis and specific treatment. Basic research is required to accomplish this task and this involves cell lines as they can be widely used in many aspects of laboratory research and, particularly, as in vitro models in cancer research. MCF-7 is a commonly used breast cancer cell line, that has been promoted for more than 40 years by multiple research groups but its characteristics have never been gathered in a consistent review article.
Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a rare subtype of non- Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL) characterized by cyclin D1 translocations. Outcomes are heterogenous, but the disease is generally incurable. High-risk patients been shown to have a median overall survival (OS) of only 37 months and 20% five-year OS. In some patients, the disease is more indolent; such cases are associated with leukemic phase of the disease, SOX11-negativity, and mutated IGHV. Additionally, even across SOX11 positive cases outcomes vary, with worse overall survival in MCL with cytoplasmic staining as compared to nuclear staining. For patients with indolent clinical behavior, observation is frequently employed, and large case series suggest the possibility of prolonged periods before treatment becomes necessary, as long as 128 months, and favorable outcomes even once treatment has been initiated.
In 1989, researchers proposed an intricate strategy in the field of adoptive cell therapy (ACT). Using the T-cell receptor (TCR) as a template, they replaced the coding sequence for the Vα and Vβ chains with the antigen- recognition domains from an antibody (VH and VL chains).
Ultrasound elastography is a diagnostic method, to measure elasticity and strain in tissues and organs. The aim of this review was to highlight the usefulness of sciatic nerve ultrasound elastography in clinical practice. Different changes affect the sciatic nerves through various diseases and conditions.
COVID-19 has challenged global health and affected many countries. The disease had infected more than 16 million people and killed over 650,000 ones by the end of July 2020. According to Sahu et al., COVID-19 epidemic is the third most common coronavirus in the 21st century, resulting in numerous deaths all over the world. It has caused severe psychological stress and increased hospital visits along with increased tiredness and burnout of medical staff. The disease has also raised many problems for the management of hospitals and diagnostic-treatment centers, so that many of them have no capacity to receive patients.
As aquatic therapy has become an important rehabilitative option, more exercise programs have emerged. Ai Chi, is one of the therapeutic aquatic exercise concepts with growing potential.
Impact of Age on Prognostic Treatment Outcomes Among Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Patients: Evidence from Sri Lanka
Improving treatment outcomes for oral cancer patients is underpinned by their disease-free survival and overall survival while ensuring sufficient levels of quality of life [1,2]. There is research evidence to support surgical treatment with or without adjuvant radiotherapy is superior as compared to curative radiotherapy with or without
Health Workers’ Perspectives on the Outcomes, Enablers, and Barriers to the Implementation of HIV “Test and Treat” Guidelines in Abuja, Nigeria
HIV/AIDS continues to be a major public health disease accounting for 35 million deaths across the world. In 2016 alone, there were 1.8 million new HIV infections and 1 million deaths worldwide.
Relationship between Plate Length and Fracture Height as a Predictor of Non-Union in Distal Femur Fractures. A Restrospective Study
The distal femur constitutes the region between the metaphyseal-diaphyseal junction and the femoral condyles. Fractures of this segment, which includes supracondylar and intercondylar fractures, represent between 4 and 7% of all the femur fractures, with an incidence of 37 cases per 100,000 habitants/year. These fractures present a bimodal distribution depending on the injury mechanism.
Photodynamic Therapy for the Prevention of SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Dental Office: Could be Possible?
In January 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) identified a novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 in the Wuhan province of China, which has since caused a worldwide pandemic, with more than 21.2 million confirmed cases and over 760,200 confirmed deaths as of 14 August 2020. SARS-CoV-2 is a single-stranded RNA virus classified in
Skeletal Muscle Weakness Often Occurs in Patients with Myalgic Encephalomyelitis / Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS)
This commentary complements data reported in Clinical Biomechanics  reporting reduced maximal handgrip strength in numerous patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis / chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) in proportion to their lowered maximal physical performances.
Food Cravings (FC) is the term commonly used to describe sensations related to an intense desire for specific consumption , and there are features that we separate into internal and external aspects related to FC 
Cervical Cancer Prevalence in sub-Saharan Africa and HPV Vaccination Policy: A Public Health Grand Challenge?
“Women are not dying because of diseases we cannot treat. They are dying because societies have yet to make the decision that their lives are worth saving.”
Leukemia is a tumor of the primary blood-forming cells. leukemia is not only a cancer of the white blood cells but also it originates in other blood cell types. Types of leukemia are categorized based on the rate of growth to acute (fastgrowing) or chronic (slower growing), and whether it arises in myeloid cells or lymphoid cells. Different types of leukemia have a different line of treatment and prognosis.
The human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology was developed more than ten years ago and has provided important tools for the mechanistic and cellular interrogation of many diseases . To generate iPSC lines, somatic cells are reprogrammed into cells resembling embryonic stem cells by the overexpression of key transcription factors.
Resveratrol Treatment Reduces Neuromotor Impairment and Hearing Loss in a Mouse Model of Diabetic Neuropathy and Nerve Injury
In the peripheral nervous system (PNS), Schwann cells (SCs) are responsible for myelin production, which contributes to axonal protection and allows for efficient action potential transmission. Unfortunately, acquired and hereditary demyelinating diseases of the PNS are numerous and affect an increasing number of people.
Succinate Accumulation Links Mitochondrial MnSOD Depletion to Aberrant Nuclear DNA Methylation and Altered Cell Fate
Epigenetic processes provide a mechanism for integrating metabolic inputs and translating them into various phenotypic outputs [1,2]. Indeed, epigenetic modifiers often require or are inhibited by key citric acid cycle (CAC) metabolites (e.g. succinate,
Cigarette smoke (CS) is a main risk factor for the development of various diseases, either via direct exposure of tissues to CS [1-3] or indirect exposure of remote organs to CS extracts (CSE) (Figure 1) [4-6]. The harmful impact is induced by exposure to the toxic CS substances, each cigarette contains approximately 7,000 chemicals. Out of
CD8+ cytotoxic T cells recognise and kill cancer cells that present immunogenic peptides bound to the cell surface major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) molecules.
Primary Lymph Node Kaposi's Sarcoma in Two HIV Positive Patients Presenting with Generalized Lymphadenopathy and Pancytopenia in a Third Level Hospital in Guatemala
We present two unique cases in which two HIV positive patients with generalized lymphadenopathy and pancytopenia without any skin lesions were diagnosed with primary lymph node Kaposi´s Sarcoma after excisional biopsy of an inguinal lymph node.
Physiotherapy Exercise Program for Managing Adhesive Capsulitis in Patients with and without Diabetes: A Pilot Randomized Trial
Adhesive capsulitis (AC), also known as ‘frozen shoulder’, is characterized by the development of dense adhesions and capsular thickening leading to a progressive and painful restriction of shoulder range of motion (ROM) and functional disability . The onset is gradual, usually occurs between the ages of 40 and 60 years and is more common in females and diabetics.
The novel Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a highly contagious acute respiratory disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARSCoV- 2). Studies have reported oral lesions in patients with COVID-19 such as ulcers or blisters or diffuse reddish lesions affecting both keratinized and non-keratinized
The immune system is essential to host defense because it senses attacking pathogens and elicits protective immune responses. Although immune responses can protect against pathogens, uncontrolled immune responses cause tissue damage and other pathological consequences through their inflammatory mediators.
Metatarsalgia is a frequent cause of forefoot pain. Surgical treatment is based on the performance of osteotomies at the level of the minor radii to restore a normal distribution of pressure within the forefoot and improve the biomechanics during gait.
The Inappropriate Use of Proton Pump Inhibitors: An Internal Medicine Residency Clinics Effort to Deprescribe
Since 1989, PPIs have become among the top-selling drug classes in the country. It is estimated that in the United States alone, about a quarter of the country suffers from acid related conditions. Their versatility and popularity have prompted the World Health Organization to add PPIs to their list of essential medications. The low cost of PPIs and over the counter (OTC) availability of these medications have made their use ubiquitous in outpatient care.
The COVID-19 pandemic started at the end of 2019 and remains carrying a health threat and significant economic consequences. Over the last two years, COVID-19 has been the main Public Health issue, and has impacted regular healthcare systems, with significant build-up of waiting lists and delay in optimum management of other serious medical conditions including heart diseases and cancer.
With increasing rates of obesity, rates of type 2 diabetes and diabetic complications are expected to rise exponentially over the next few decades (American Diabetic Association). A key feature of type 2 diabetes is a resistance to insulin. Insulin signaling is key to a number of physiological processes, including glucose metabolism, cell growth, general gene expression, and apoptosis.
Relative COVID-19 Vaccine Booster Effectiveness and ClinicalEpidemiological Characteristics Before and After 29 Days of Shot
Background: When the highest vaccine COVID-19 booster effectiveness (VBE) is obtained is not clearly known. Objective: To compare the cases of COVID-19 in booster vaccinated people with a time of <29 days vs. ≥ 29 days from booster to infection diagnosis and assess their relative VBE. Methodology: An observational, longitudinal and prospective case series study of adult patients with COVID-19 breakthrough infections in booster vaccinated people, in general medicine and for the period December 2021 to February 2022, during the omicron variant contagion wave.
Axiography allows the three-dimensional study of condylar movements in the perspective of diagnosis of cranio-mandibular dysfunctions (CMD) and real adjustment of the semi-adaptable articulator. Conceived by Cammpion in 1902, Robert Lee was responsible for updating this principle of study.
Bladder cancer is the sixth most common malignancy in the United States and 70% of cases are non-muscle invasive at the time of diagnosis. Effective treatment is crucial to prevent progression, which occurs in about 30% of patients. The American Urological Association (AUA) guidelines recommend treatment of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) with intravesical Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) and chemotherapy.
Addiction is defined as being a primary chronic disease of the brain reward, motivation, and memory in this complex circuitry. A dysfunction in this complex circuitry can lead to certain manifestations in an individual . The individual who suffers from addiction does not have the ability to abstain from this harmful pursuit and, as a result,
Cut-off Value of Random Blood Glucose among Asian Indians for Preliminary Screening of Persons with Prediabetes and Undetected Type 2 Diabetes Defined by the Glycosylated Haemoglobin Criteria
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) remains undiagnosed for many years in large number of persons living in developing countries. The cost of diagnostic tests and the invasive procedures involved in conventional screening methods remain a major setback to timely testing
Environmental pollution is a significant concern in both developing and developed countries. The pollution load in the environment accumulates as a result of anthropogenic activity. Both organic and inorganic contaminants are hazardous to living things, and their incidence and persistence have risen dramatically in current years.
It is well established that lateral elbow pain and dysfunction is a common pathology in general and sport populations [1-3]. Lateral elbow pain has been termed tennis elbow, epicondylitis, elbow tendinosis, elbow tendinopathy, but currently, the term lateral epicondylalgia (LE) encompasses the spectrum of degeneration and
Gastric cancer is one of the neoplasms with the highest degree of mortality worldwide, responsible for more than 780,000 deaths in 2018 and whose incidence has been increasing over the last few years, mainly in Asian and Latin American countries. The technological imaging advances in digestive endoscopy such as virtual chromoendoscopy and magnification associated with a systematic and comprehensive endoscopic examination of the entire gastric mucosa by a trained operator have optimized the early detection of pre-malignant and malignant lesions, which have favoured the high rate of curability through the use of endoscopic resection techniques such as endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD).
Bromodomain and Extra-Terminal Family Protein Inhibitors: A Potentially New Therapy for Heart Disease
Bromodomain-containing protein 4 (BRD4) is a member of the mammalian bromo- and extra-terminal domain (BET) protein family, which also comprises BRD2, BRD3, and testis-specific BRDt.
Until the early sixties, the concept prevailed that alcoholic liver disease (ALD), also termed alcohol-related liver disease (ARLD), results from malnutrition commonly observed among individuals consuming chronically high amounts of alcohol rather than being causally related to the use of alcoholic beverages. However, the malnutrition concept became a matter of debate because of the clinical observation that humans, even on a normal diet and without signs of underweight or malnutrition
Commentary: A Herbal Treatment for Type 2 Diabetes – The Dangers of Adulterated and Falsified Products
In 2018, our group published a letter in The Lancet detailing a case in which a patient had taken a herbal preparation to treat her diabetes . In essence, our laboratory was approached by the treating physician after the patient, a 58 year old lady of south Asian origin with a 30 year history of type 2 diabetes said that, during the previous two years, she had replaced some of her prescribed anti-diabetic medication with a herbal remedy purchased in India.
Inhibition of Autophagy and Immune Response: Alpha-fetoprotein Stimulates Initiation of Liver Cancer
Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is a tumorous marker for the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), it is synthesized mainly by the embryo yolk sac, fetal liver and the gastrointestinal tract. AFP belongs to the family of protein products of albuminoid genes, which are located in tandem arrangement in chromosome 4 (region 4q11-q13).
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is an age-related neurodegenerative disorder  and the most common cause of human dementia, accounting for approximately 60%?80% of cases. It is estimated that more than 30 million AD patients, and the number likely to increase to over 100 million by 2050 because of the increase of the elderly population .
Tenofovir, alias (R)-PMPA, was first divulged as an anti- HIV agent in 1993 . That it would in 2012, become the first antiretroviral agent, approved by the US FDA (Food and Drug Administration) to prevent HIV infection, could have been predicted from the findings of Tsai et al.
The survival probability of early human conceptions is very low. At least 73% of natural single conceptions have no real chance of surviving six weeks of gestation . After six weeks, survival rates improve rapidly as 90% of the remainder will survive to term.
Is There a Simple and Easy Way to Detect Singlet Oxygen? Comparison of Methods for Detecting Singlet Oxygen and Application to Measure Scavenging Activity of Various Compounds
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are known to exert both beneficial and harmful effects in the human body. Singlet oxygen (1O2), is highly reactive and considered as one of the ROS, although it is not a radical molecule.
Are We Close to Achieving a HBV Cure? Risk for Hepatocellular Carcinoma Persists Despite Long-term HBV Suppression: An Update on Our Experience
Since the discovery of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) by Blumberg et al., great progress has been made in understanding the pathogenesis of the virus and its role in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). It is estimated that hepatitis B is responsible for about 50% of the HCC cases worldwide. Because of geographic variations in HBV incidence, the burden of HBV-related HCC (HBV-HCC) is highest in endemic areas such as Asian-Pacific and sub- Saharan Africa and lowest in the United States and the West. The hepatitis B vaccines, developed in the 1980s, transformed the evolution of hepatitis B in the modern era. This was followed by high effective anti-viral that reduced HBV infections and HBV-HCC.
Platelets are small anuclear cells shed from the megakaryocyte, at a rate of ~1011/day , maintaining a blood concentration of 100-450 x 109/L in healthy adults. As the second most abundant circulating cells, they are becoming increasingly recognized for their versatility and cross-talks in cancer, development, immunology among others.
The main symptom in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is shortness of breath. Shortness of breath occurs especially with exercise and progresses over the years despite all medical treatments. One of the main mechanisms by which this symptom occurs is hyperinflation in the lungs .
Artificial Intelligence in Pharma: Positive Trends but More Investment Needed to Drive a Transformation
Over the past few years, pharmaceutical R&D has become aware of the potential benefits of leveraging artificial intelligence and its collective subfields including machine learning, deep learning, data science and advanced analytics.
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) chronically infects more than 250 million individuals worldwide and is responsible for more than 800,000 deaths per year by promoting end-stage liver diseases, among which decompensated cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) (WHO, July 2020) are prominent. Studies performed in chimpanzees or in animalversion of HBV (woodchuck HBV: WHBV) highlighted the lack of immune responses against the virus upon primary infection. Thus, HBV has been described as a “stealth” virus (i.e. a virus that does not modify/induce immune response in the cell). However, a growing number of studies describe that HBV is able to rapidly and efficiently counteract the innate immune response in a large variety of cells (hepatocytes, macrophages, Natural Killer cell…). Hereby, we focus on the role of macrophages (Mφ) during HBV infection.
Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning in Cancer Care: Current Applications and Future Perspectives
Cancer is the second most common cause of death worldwide, accounting for an estimated 9.6 million deaths in the year 2018, a number that is expected to grow to more than 13 million by 2030. In the past decade, we have witnessed unprecedented scientific advancement in the understanding of cancer etiology, prevention, diagnosis and development of new therapeutic strategies.
After one year in a pandemic, we mourn the loss of over half a million lives in the United States, and over four million worldwide, and remain concerned over the challenges facing the families of 35 million people in the United States, and 200 million worldwide, who have suffered from cases of COVID-19.
Editorial is usually a brief article, written by the editor that expresses publishers or journals collective views on a current issue. As an Emeritus Professor, I have taken the liberty of writing these editorial comments, at the invitation of the Editorial Board of the Journal of Diabetes and Clinical Research.
In the last decade, the study of nanometer-scale particles has grown exponentially worldwide. This growth is due to the broad field of nanostructures applications, which, due to their dimensions in nanometric sizes, have new properties not found in micro and macro scale. These properties result from the increase in the ratio between the surface area and volume, and the nanostructures’ size directly influences these. Tolerance to temperature, variety of colors, changes in chemical reactivity,
This article is an extension to our recently published article in Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, entitled “Β-Sitosterol: Isolation from Muntingia Calabura Linn. Bark Extract, Structural Elucidation, and Molecular Docking Studies as Potential Inhibitor of SARSCoV-2 Mpro (COVID-19)”.
Bone mineral content and density (BMC, BMD) losses, which may subsequently lead to osteopenia and osteoporosis, appear in various disuse (aging, space flight and its analogs, spinal cord injury, etc.) conditions. While diet and hormonal status impact BMC and BMD values, a major factor responsible for these losses are the
Practical Considerations Regarding Recommendations for an Educational Program in Robot Assisted Gynaecological Surgery
Robot assisted gynaecological surgery is exponentially expanding its field and gynaecologists need to be prepared to implement this new approach in clinical practice.
Obesity has reached a global epidemic and it predisposes to the development of insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and related metabolic diseases. Current interventions against obesity and/or type 2 diabetes such as calorie restriction, exercise, genetic manipulations or established pharmacological treatments have not been successful for many patients with obesity and/or type 2 diabetes.
According to estimates from the International Agency for Research on Cancer, by the year 2030 there will be 22 million new cancer cases and 13 million deaths per year. The main reason for death from cancer is not the initial tumor but it’s metastasis to distant parts of the body, yet this process has remained poorly understood for quite some time.
Chronic hypertension is present in 1-2% of pregnant women. Women with chronic hypertension are at an increased risk of maternal and perinatal complications when compared with normotensive women.
Dendorbium Nobile Lindl. Alkaloids Suppress NF-κB and NLRP3 Signaling Pathways to Attenuate Lipopolysaccharide-induced Neuroinflammation
The important immune cells in the brain are called microglia acting as the central junction between neuroinflammation and neurodegenerative diseases. In patients of cognitive disorders and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) animal models, amoebic morphology and inflammatory pathways are activated to release numerous cells in the inflammatory factors by active microglia.
No Studies in Stroke Regarding Brain fMRI Activity and Pelvic Floor Muscle Training/Activation - Only Studies in Non-stroke Population: A Review of Neuroimaging Studies
Neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction (NLUTD) is highly prevalent in poststroke patients, leading to major impact on the quality of life (QoL) and healthcare resources. Pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) has, over the past two decades, been recommended as first-line treatment for neurologically healthy patients with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS).
Since December 2019, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) caused by 2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) has resulted in 89,000 cases of Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), formerly known as Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia (NCP) in China, including 2,450 deaths.
Breast Cancer is the most regularly diagnosed type of cancer in women in the world, making up on its own 25% of all cases, or nearly 2 million new cases in 2018, and 15% of all cancer related deaths, or around 626,700 deaths for that same year.
Multidirectional Benefits of Nanotechnology in the Diagnosis, Treatment and Prevention of Tuberculosis
Despite the curious advancement in medical science and therapeutics, tuberculosis (TB) persist the primary factor of mortality than any other infectious disease and socioeconomic disaster for millions of people around the world. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), World’s One-third of the population is infected with this disease and of these, 8 to 10 million people develop active disease and 2 million people die each year and the rest of the infected people remain asymptomatic.
Beneficial Effects of Surgical Closure of Atrial Septal Defect Outweigh Potential Complications in Sick Infants
Atrial septal defect (ASD) is a common congenital heart disease diagnosed during childhood. Persistently increased pulmonary blood flow and dilated right atrium (RA) and right ventricle (RV) result in multiple symptoms and morbidities in adulthood; untreated adults may develop exercise intolerance, congestive heart failure, atrial tachyarrhythmias, pulmonary hypertension (PH), embolic stroke, or even death.
Pain Outcomes with an Elliptical Regimen (POWER) Study: Identifying the Proper Dosage of Exercise for Therapeutic Effect in Persons with Chronic Back Pain
Low back pain (LBP) is one of the most prevalent conditions that will affect 70-85% of individuals at some point in their life . LBP accounts for 2.3% of all visits to the physician, and is the most common area of the body to experience pain . Exercise has been a mainstay for managing persons with chronic low back pain for almost 40
Diet and Exercise: A Novel Cure for Asthma? - A Short Communications on a Non-Pharmacological Strategy
Behavioral interventions with regular physical activity, weight loss and diet have repeatedly demonstrated preventive effects in a wide range of diseases. Furthermore, an unhealthy lifestyle is a known predictor for increased use of medication and also the leading risk factor for global mortality.
Modern Rehabilitation Strategies of Post-Stroke Motor Disfunctions: Functional Electrical Stimulation and Biofeedback-Stabilometric Postural Training
More than 80% of patients after a stroke have limited daily activity due to a complex polymorphic motor deficiency of various nature and severity, which leads to postural disorders (PD) . Because of paresis, develops different changes in the musculoskeletal system (MSS) such as PD, restrictions of movements in the joints, impaired
A 59-year-old left hand dominant female was evaluated by a physical therapist. The patient had an 8-year history of chronic intermittent left elbow pain with a recent exacerbation occurring after moving furniture. Aggravating factors included holding a coffee cup, picking up trash bags, and lifting heavy dishes. Symptoms were eased by ice and Meloxicam as prescribed by her primary care provider.
The double trigger (DT) is the second asynchrony in frequency, after the failed cycles . Compared to the latter, it can be more injurious since it usually increases tidal volume (Vt), transmural and transvascular pressure to levels that can cause ventilator-induced lung damage [2,3]; and self-inflicted by the patient (P_SILI) , as well diaphragmatic injury.
When immune cells are activated, they undergo metabolic change in order to have sufficient energy to function effectively. The Krebs cycle is one of the most important pathways involved in this response and citrate, a critical component of this pathway, regulates carbohydrate and lipid metabolism.
Elevated body mass index (BMI) has been associated with an increased risk of cancer and has been shown to have a negative impact on survival in patients with breast, prostate, oral cancer, and leukemia. In plasma cell dyscrasias, obesity has not only been shown to be a risk factor for the development of multiple myeloma, but also has been associated with a higher rate of progression from monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance (MGUS) to multiple myeloma, and if intervened on, has bee
Safety and Efficacy of s-MOX Regimen in Patients with Colorectal Cancer Who Developed Cardiotoxicity Following Fluoropyrimidine Administration: A Case Series
5-fluorouracil (5-FU), an antimetabolite in the fluoropyrimidine class, is the third most commonly used chemotherapeutic agent worldwide for the treatment of solid malignancies . Despite advances in novel cancer therapies, commonly used in combination with fluoropyrimidines, 5-FU remains one of the most effective and safe chemotherapy agents to manage colorectal cancer (CRC).
In the last few decades there has been a growing interest in the role of transposable elements (TEs), colloquially referred to as “jumping genes” in human biology [1-4]. TEs, and a specific subset of this clade, retrotransposons, are widespread throughout eukaryote genomes. The socalled long interspersed elements-1 (LINE-1 or L1) are of especial interest because they represent the only class of retrotransposons in the human genome that are fully autonomous,
Wound healing is a dynamic process whereby cellular structures and the tissue layers are reconstructed. Adult wound healing can be categorized into three stages: inflammatory phase, proliferative phase, and remodelling phase. Blood cells like macrophages, neutrophils, extracellular matrix and mediators, various proteins, and various genes play an important role in these phases.
Influence of Clinical Risk Factors on Outcomes in Men with Stage I Non-Seminomatous Germ Cell Tumor Undergoing Robot-Assisted Retroperitoneal Lymph Node Dissection
Retroperitoneal lymph nodes are often the first landing site of metastatic disease in men with testicular cancer. Primary retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND) for clinical stage I NSGCT can accurately surgically stage patients who may have nodal micrometastases, and in some cases, can serve as the primary therapy when volume of metastasis is low.
First In silico Structural Model of Glucokinase-1 from Phytophthora infestans Reveals a Possible Pyrophosphate Binding Site
Phytophthora infestans is the causal agent of late blight disease, which affects potato and tomato crops worldwide, that brings about significant economic losses in the production of these crops. The PITG_06016 gene codes for one of the 7 glucokinases present in this phytopathogen.
Low-level Progesterone on the Day of hCG Injection Has No Detrimental Effect on the Pregnancy Outcome after IVF with GnRH-a Protocol: A Retrospective Study
To investigate the effect of low progesterone (P) level on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) injection on the outcome of in vitro fertilization (IVF) with GnRH- agonist (GnRH-a) long protocol.
Healthy Fetal Outcomes Using A Novel Treatment For Maternal Lyme Disease And Babesiosis During Consecutive Pregnancies: A Case Study and Literature Review
The genus Babesia comprises over 100 species of tick-transmitted protozoal intraerythrocytic pathogens (piroplasms) , causing malarial-type illness. The most common human pathogens in the United States are B. microti  and Babesia duncani (WA- 1) ; Less common species include Babesia MO-1  and KO-1 , as well as Babesia divergens and Babesia venatorum (EU-1) in Europe.
Cancer is a worldwide public health issue that affects millions of people every year. In 2018 there were 17 million newly documented cases of cancer globally (8.8 million in men and 8.2 million in women), leading to 9.6 million deaths. Cancer is a vastly heterogeneous disease, with over 100 different types of cancer currently identified in humans; the most common types of cancer are lung, female breast, bowel and prostate, these four types account for more than 40% of all new cancer case
The gut microbiome or gut flora is a vast community of microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, protozoa, and fungi that inhabit the digestive tract of the human and other animals [1,2]. In the human body, bacterial species colonize into the oral cavity, skin, vagina, and placenta, however, the largest population of microorganisms resides in the intestine.
Antisense Inhibition of accA in E. coli Suppressed luxS Expression and Increased Antibiotic Susceptibility
Multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria, which are resistant to more than one antibiotic, present an enormous challenge for medical communities and organizations worldwide. For example, Acinetobacter baumannii is a highly contagious MDR gram-negative bacterium (GNB) that inhabits hospitals and causes 64% of urinary tract infections associated with the use of catheters. Alexopoulou et al. found that there were more healthcare-associated infections caused by GNB than Gram-positive Cocci (GPC) bacte
Arbovirology, Arbovirus, Arthropod-borne virus, these are informal name that refers to all virus types infecting “blood sucker” arthropod vector, capable to multiply the virus and to transmit it to vertebrates through their bite. These virus-vectors are essentially mosquitoes (male only), ticks and sandflies feeding mainly on mammals and sometime on other vertebrates (e.g. birds, reptiles).
Synthetic Lethal Drug Combinations Targeting Proteasome and Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors in TP53-Mutated Cancers
Tumors harboring mutations in certain oncogenes are often dependent on activation of certain pathways which becomes essential for the survival of the cancer cells. This condition is formally known as synthetic lethality, a state when simultaneous loss of two genes is lethal to a cancer cell, while the loss of the individual genes is not.
Commentary on: “Multiple Single Cannulation Technique of Arteriovenous Fistula: A Randomised Controlled Trial”
One of the most important renal nursing procedures is the cannulation of a vascular access (VA), a procedure that is carried out on every single dialysis treatment. VA cannulation method is still a procedure that reflects local unit practices and the skill of the individual nurse
Reduced BCR Signaling and a Metabolic Shift Accompanies Malignant Progression of Follicular Lymphoma: A Lesson from Transcriptomics
Lymphoma represents the most common form of hematological malignancy in the developed world, accounting for 3.6% of all cancers and 55.6% of all blood cancers in Europe, with non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL) representing 90% of cases.
In January 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) classified COVID-19 to be a Public Health Emergency of International Concern and declared it a pandemic on March 11, 2020 . Over one hundred and eighty-five million people have been infected by SARS-CoV-2 and roughly four million have died worldwide so far
The Role of Direct Oral Anticoagulants in Advanced Chronic Kidney Disease – Questions and Future directions
With the advent of the direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs), patients requiring anticoagulation for common conditions such as atrial fibrillation and venous thromboembolism no longer need to worry about dietary restrictions or regular monitoring of the international normalized ratio which complicated warfarin treatment.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) methylation is a critical type of epigenetic modification that typically occurs in a specialized region of DNA, CpG-rich regions in the mammalian genome and is associated with regulating gene expression. Previous studies have revealed a strong association of change in DNA methylation with various diseases such as cancer, obesity and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).
A national perinatal survey in France in 2016 showed that 12.2% of women have instrumentally assisted vaginal births with vacuum extraction used in 49.8% of cases, making it the most frequently used form of obstetrical assistance.
Infectious diseases caused by microorganisms of the most varied natures and by viral entities cause millions of deaths every year. Around the world, viral infections have impacted civilizations’ circumstances since the earliest times, including the current panorama of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic known as coronavirus disease in 2019 (COVID-19). In this sense, in the last century,
Five months into the COVID-19 pandemic, the U.S. death toll from the virus has now surpassed 100,000 people. Many more cases remain nationwide, while an unknown number of patients currently harbor the virus asymptomatically. While health officials are now optimistic regarding the decline in prevalence and number of deaths due to COVID-19 and the possibility of a vaccine by the fall, we cannot lose sight of the bigger picture: the next pandemic.
Multidisciplinary Acute Care of Central Retinal Artery Occlusion with a Stroke Paradigm: A Call to Action
Central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) is a painless ophthalmologic emergency with potential for irreversible vision loss. Similar to ischemic stroke, CRAO occurs when there is sudden obstruction of the central retinal artery, leading to ischemic injury to the retina and subsequent cell death. Continuous occlusion and ischemia of the retina progresses to permanent damage to retinal cells and loss of vision.
The variety of methods employed during the fabrication of MONPs can alter the characteristics and control the properties of the obtained nano-oxides. The reaction mechanisms and, therefore, the functionality of nanostructured MOx depend on their composition
DILI, HILI, RUCAM Algorithm, and AI, the Artificial Intelligence: Provocative issues, Progress, and Proposals
Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques represent a fascinating, provocative, and challenging discipline, are pervasive and of global importance. The European Commission summarized the current state in a White Paper on AI issues released on 19 February 2020, discussing various AI concepts that revolutionized many complex processes
Levels of Intellectual Disability and Categories of Communicative Skills When conducting a patient interview, it is crucial to understand the individuals’ level of ID as well as their expressive language skills in order to communicate effectively
In order to implement the knowledge of cancer to monitor its evolution and setting, in the last decade, new minimally invasive and repeatable samples collection have been developed such as liquid biopsy.
Angioimmunoblastic T cell lymphoma (AITL) is one of the most common T-cell lymphomas, second only to peripheral T-cell lymphoma not otherwise specified (PTCL-NOS). Initially AITL was considered a non-malignant lymphadenopathy with immune hyperactivation, nowadays being classified as a PTCL.
The hepatitis C virus (HCV) genome was isolated during the late 1980s using molecular cloning techniques. It is recognized as the cause of most cases of percutaneously transmitted non-A, non-B hepatitis. It is estimated, that up to 200 million people worldwide are infected with the hepatitis C virus (HCV), more than 3% of the world population.
Gender Disparities in Outcomes Following Pulmonary Embolism Treatment in the Intensive Care Unit; A Multi-center Retrospective Cohort Study
Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a blockage of blood flow in the pulmonary artery bed that can result in a life-threatening and potentially reversible right ventricular failure . PE remains one of the leading causes of poor prognosis and death, particularly when a shock or right ventricular failure occurs . According to studies, PE is generally manifested in a nonspecific manner
Measuring the Impact of Stressors through Self-reporting on the Temporal Nature of How Perceived Stress Emerges and Dissipates
Chronic stress exposure is linked to health and performance deficits including mental disorders, chronic diseases, and metabolic conditions. Stress management is an active process of coping with internal or external stressors to prevent or dampen biological and psychological strain
The currently ongoing coronavirus pandemic, the SARSCOV- 2, interchangeably referred to as the COVID-19 infection, has in a short span of time altered the ways and means of almost all of mankind. So strong has been its effect that all human activity ceased in one way or another for a considerable time, led to significant loss of life and economic drain of.
Uniportal VATS Lobectomy for Lung Cancer: Feasibility and Cost Effectiveness in a Single Center Experience
In last decades, video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) together with robotic-assisted thoracic surgery (RATS) can be considered the biggest innovation in thoracic surgery. This approach drastically changed the way of performing surgical operations, improving patient’s outcome undergoing thoracic surgery.
Focal Aggregates of Normal or Near Normal Uveal Melanocytes (FANNUMs) in the Choroid. A Practical Clinical Category of Small Ophthalmoscopically Evident Discrete Melanocytic Choroidal Lesions
Multiple types of discrete melanocytic choroidal lesions are currently recognized, including benign choroidal nevi, choroidal malignant melanomas, patches of choroidal melanocytosis, and foci of choroidal melanocytes stimulated paraneoplastically by a systemic nonmelanoma malignant neoplasm.
Ketamine has long been used in the field of anesthesia . Its rapid and long-acting analgesic effects associated with its dissociative properties have also established its use in prehospital and emergency department patients.
The transient receptor potential mucolipin 1 (TRPML1) is an endolysosomal channel belonging to the TRP family. Clinically, mutations of TRPML1 have been responsible for a severe lysosomal storage disorder called mucolipidosis type IV.
Flow Cytometric Characterization of Accidental Cell Death Highlights Connections to Regulated Cell Death
Damage-Associated Molecular Patterns (DAMPs) are known by their nature to cause inflammatory responses in numerous disease states from cancer, trauma to age related diseases (e.g. atherosclerosis, Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases), these molecules are released by cells undergoing cell death.
Proton minibeam radiotherapy (pMBRT) is an external beam radiotherapy method with reduced side effects by taking advantage of spatial fractionation in the normal tissue. Due to scattering, the delivered small beams widen in the tissue ensuring a homogeneous dose distribution in the tumor. In this review, the physical and biological principles regarding dose distribution and healing effects are explained. In the last decade, several preclinical studies have been conducted addressing normal tissue sparing and tumor control in-vitro and in-vivo, using human skin tissue and mouse or rat models. The major results acquired in these studies are summarized. A further newly emerging therapy method is FLASH radiotherapy, i.e. the treatment using ultra-high dose rates. The possibility of combining these methods in proton minibeam FLASH therapy (pMB FLASH) is worked out. Additionally, technical feasibility and limitations will be discussed by looking at simulations as well as preclinical studies and also pointing out new ways of delivering the desired tumor dose, such as interlacing. We will also highlight the opportunities that emerge regarding high dose radiation, hypofractionation and the combination with immunotherapy.
Prevalence of Symptom Clusters in Cancer Patients at First Presentation in Palliative Care Clinic as per Different Disease Groups
Cancer has its own disease burden and patients usually suffer from symptom clusters when they are referred for palliative treatment. Identification of symptom cluster trajectories will help clinician to take into account measures that can optimize quality of life of palliative patients. Therefore the aim of this paper is to determine the overall prevalence of symptoms and symptoms clusters in different disease groups according to etiology at the time of first visit to Palliative care clinic by using HIS Palliative First Assessment note indicating Edmonton symptom scale.
Apoptosis is a physiological response in development and homeostasis of metazoans. Apoptosis is triggered during pathological events as a means to renew affected tissues and eliminate cancer cells. The immune system regulates the extrinsic pathway of apoptosis, where signals such as TNFα or displayed ligands on the surface of immune cells trigger signal cascades by death receptors present on targeted cells.
Bacterial communication via quorum sensing (QS) molecules, as well as toxin-antitoxin (TA) gene modules located on bacterial chromosomes are well-studied mechanisms. Escherichia coli mazEF is a stress-induced TA system mediating cell death requiring a QS extracellular death factor (EDF), the pentapeptide NNWNN. MazF is an endoribonuclease specific for ACA sites. During adverse conditions, the activated MazF generates a stress induced translation machinery, composed of MazF-processed mRNAs and selective ribosomes that specifically translate these processed mRNAs.
Karyotypic Profile of Chronic Myeloid Leukemia in Patients Diagnosed at Tertiary Level in Afghanistan
Balanced translocation resulting in fusion of the Abelson gene (ABL1) from chromosome 9q34 with the breakpoint cluster region (BCR) gene on chromosome 22q11.2 is the pathognomonic molecular driver of CML. The resulting BCRABL 1 fusion gene is both the diagnostic as well as therapeutic target of CML. The first agent with tyrosine kinase inhibitor activity that was licenced in 2000 for treatment of CML patients, was Imatinib, gradually followed by multiple agents with higher efficacy.
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