This study compares the association between psychosis, suicide, and violent behavior in patients admitted and discharged from the psychiatric ward. Methods: This study used a cross-sectional design. The experimental study was done with all the psychotic patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria upon admission and discharge from a teaching hospital in Malaysia. The study was conducted for a duration of five months from March to July 2022.
A Review of the Applications of Intraoperative Ultrasound Guidance in Cervical Cerclage and Selected Gynecological Procedures
The role of ultrasound (US) in gynecological procedures is increasing. Transabdominal ultrasound image–guided intrauterine procedures are not new. In this article, we reviewed the use of ultrasound some of the main gynecological procedures, focusing on the cerclage procedures.
In their recent article, “Jail-Based Competency Treatment Comes of Age,” Jennings et al.  reviewed the historical development of the model and presented the first large-scale empirical support for its effectiveness, which covered eight years of outcomes across four different program sites for nearly 2,000 Incompetent to Stand Trial (IST) defendants.
Electrochemical Supercapacitors Based on Hydrous RuO2/oxidized Multi-walled Carbon Nanotube Composites
Electrochemical properties of ruthenium oxide (RuO2)/oxidized multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) (RuO2/MWCNT) composite electrodes in supercapacitors were investigated. The electrodes were prepared by impregnating MWCNTs with different concentrations of RuCl3•xH2O solution, followed by chemical reduction and annealing at 150°C under a nitrogen atmosphere.
The coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak occurred in China and spread to the whole world in a short period of time. The WHO (World Health Organization) named the viral disease as COVID-19 (Novel Coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2) on February 11, 2020.
Commentary on "Type II Toxin-antitoxin Systems Have a Peculiar Localization in Escherichia Coli Cells"
Bacterial Toxin-Antitoxin (TA) modules were extensively studied. They are located on extra chromosomal genetic elements as well as on bacterial chromosomes. They carry two genes. One encoding for the toxin, and the other for the antitoxin. The toxin is a stable protein, while the antitoxin is either RNA or a labile protein. They are divided into six groups, among them group II is the most studied.
The first case is described in Wuhan city of China in December 2019 and the disease (COVID-19) continues to pose threat to global health all over the world affecting more than approximately 476 million confirmed cases and 6 million deaths. Reliable and effective methods are taken a critical role such as real-time reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR test as a gold standard method, serological tests, and reverse transcriptase loopmediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) method is chosen firstly.
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play important roles during development and responses to external stimuli. In Brassicaceae, the stigma epidermis accumulates a large amount of ROS. Moreover, regulating the stigmatic ROS status is crucial for Self-incompatibility (SI) mechanisms, to ensure self-pollen rejection while promoting compatible pollen. Here, scanning our transcriptomic data in light of recent advances in the Brassicaceae SI system, we identified Class III peroxidases that are highly expressed in mature stigma and might regulate stigma ROS homeostasis.
As the literature shows, the categorical diagnosis of personality has received numerous criticisms. Over the years, authors suggest that personality dysfunction is distributed along a dimensional continuum. Dimensional assessment of personality severity has been included in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Section III, and in the World Health Organization’s International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, where levels of personality functioning are posited to account for personality complexity
The article ‘Enablers and barriers to effective clinical supervision in the workplace: a rapid evidence review’ presents evidence from the international literature on effective clinical supervision. The review searched nearly 16000 international publications to answer the question: What makes effective clinical supervision? When in place and done well, clinical supervision has many benefits for the organisation, professional development and patient services.
It is long known that melanoma has the ability to metastasize widely. Unusual sites of metastases are seen including intracardiac. The literature reports cases of cardiac metastases however, most reports pre-date the more recent era of immunotherapy and targeted agent use and do not describe systemic treatment responses.
Impact of Cellular Senescence on Neurodegenerative Diseases during the COVID-19 Pandemic: Suitable Targets Required to Eliminate Cellular Senescence
We recently reviewed the scientific literature that elucidates the impact of cellular senescence on COVID-19 complications.
Differential Fecal Microbiome Dysbiosis after Equivalent Traumatic Brain Injury in Aged Versus Young Adult Mice
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has a bimodal age distribution with peak incidence at age 24 and age 65 with worse outcomes developing in aged populations
The Impact of Fluid Resuscitation Timeliness in Geriatric Patients with Sepsis: A Single Center Retrospective Cohort Study
Sepsis is a key driver of worldwide mortality, representing close to 20% of global deaths in 2017 . Approximately half of patients hospitalized with sepsis are 65 years and older . Delivery of 30ml/kg of crystalloid fluid bolus within three hours of diagnosing sepsis remains a cornerstone of the Surviving Sepsis Campaign (SSC)
Pregnancy Outcomes in Pregnant Women with HIV on Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate (TDF) Compared to Tenofovir Alafenamide (TAF)
HIV infection in pregnancy continues to be of significant clinical and public health importance [1,2]. The current statistics published by the World Health Organization (WHO) demonstrate that 38 million people are living with HIV in 2019, and 1.1 million (85%) pregnant women living with HIV received antiretroviral therapy (ARVs) during pregnancy and postpartum.
Human Gray and White Matter Metabolomics to Differentiate APOE and Stage Dependent Changes in Alzheimer’s Disease
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a leading cause of death and morbidity in the United States . The hallmarks of AD are β-amyloid (Aβ) and tau. However, studies have indicated that metabolic dysfunction may play a more pivotal role in the progression of AD . Glucose hypometabolism and mitochondrial dysfunction are well-known features of AD .
Inulin Supplementation Mitigates Gut Dysbiosis and Brain Impairment Induced by Mild Traumatic Brain Injury during Chronic Phase
Approximately 1.6-3.8 million people sustain a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) in the US annually. This amounts to the hospitalization of 100-300 per 100,000 young adults. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reports that around 5.3 million people live with a permanent disability after mTBI, and there are currently no known restorative therapies.
Glucose Metabolism is a Better Marker for Predicting Clinical Alzheimer’s Disease than Amyloid or Tau
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) research has long been dominated with communications regarding the amyloid hypothesis and targeting amyloid clearance through pharmacological therapies from the brain .
In 2019, approximately 38 million people were infected with HIV worldwide . Although there is still no cure that successfully eradicates the disease, combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has improved to a point where undetectable viral loads have become achievable and HIV carriers often live almost normal lives with very substantially increased average life expectancies compared to historical data.
Increasingly prominent roles in interventional oncology are held by various tumor ablation therapies performed by direct applications of local acute trauma-inducing insult to the targeted lesion aiming for its rapid in situ destruction. These therapies include treatments based on various forms of thermal energy delivery (photothermal, cryoablation, microwave ablation, radiofrequency ablation), non-thermal illumination (photodynamic therapy), electric field exposure, or high hydrostatic pressure
Fostemsavir in Heavily Treatment-Experienced Individuals Living with HIV-1: Insights from the Phase 3 BRIGHTE Study
Fostemsavir (Rukobia™, ViiV Healthcare, Research Triangle Park, NC), a prodrug of the first-in-class attachment inhibitor temsavir, was developed to provide a much-needed new therapeutic option for heavily treatment-experienced (HTE) people living with HIV-1 (PLWH) who are unable to form a suppressive regimen from remaining viable antiretroviral (ARV) agents because of multidrug resistance, contraindications, prior intolerance, or other safety considerations.
Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a combination of antiretroviral medications, most commonly prescribed as two co-formulated antiretrovirals, taken as a single tablet daily to significantly reduce the risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in individuals at high risk.
The maturation of the immune system is a complex process that undergoes major transitions during fetal and neonatal development . Throughout this developmental window, the response to liver injury is dependent on the nature and timing of the insult .
Neuroblastoma is derived from the developing sympathetic nervous system and is the most common extracranial solid tumor of childhood.
The Interplay between Transcription Factor SALL4 and Histone Modifiers in Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells
Currently, there is a growing need for culturing hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) ex vivo for various clinical applications such as HSPC transplantation and gene therapy. For many patients with hematologic, genetic, and immune diseases, HSPC transplants can be a life-saving treatment. There are over 20,000 patients in the US receiving HSPC transplantation yearly .
Combined Antiseizure Efficacy of Cannabidiol and Clonazepam in a Conditional Mouse Model of Dravet Syndrome
Dravet syndrome (DS) is an intractable childhood epilepsy disorder affecting one in 15,000 to 20,000 births . It is caused by de novo heterozygous lossof- function mutations in the SCN1A gene encoding the brain type-I voltage-gated sodium channel Nav1.1
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which started in Wuhan in December 2019, is a pandemic caused by the newly emerged severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) (genus Betacoronavirus, family Coronaviridae).
At the end of 2019, a novel coronavirus was identified as the cause of a cluster of pneumonia cases in Wuhan, a city in the Hubei Province of China.
Previously characterized as a purely immune mediated disease, sepsis is now recognized as a dysregulated multisystem response against a pathogen. Recognition of the infectious agent by pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs) can initiate activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway and promote the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines. During sepsis, the activation of NF-κB is dysregulated and results in cytokine storm, or the pathologic release of cytokines.
Magnesium is an essential mineral and cofactor for hundreds of enzymes and reactions. Magnesium is essential for the regulation of cell growth, division, and differentiation as well as protein synthesis, cell signaling and structural functions.
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a significant cause of cancer mortality worldwide. Chronic hepatic inflammation and fibrosis play a critical role in the development of HCC. Liver fibrosis develops as a result of response to injury such that a persistent and excessive wound healing response induces extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition leading to HCC.
Evaluation of Patellofemoral Complications by Comparing the Medial Parapatellar and Subvastus Approaches
Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is considered to be the best method for treating advanced knee osteoarthritis in terms of reducing pain, improving joint functions, and increasing the patient’s quality of life. The most commonly used approach in TKA is the standard medial parapatellar (MPP) approach described by Insall. The MPP approach provides a good view of the operating field.
Gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) work by shortening the T1, T2, and T2* relaxation time constants of adjacent water protons in tissues.
Cancer Stem Cells, Together with Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Other Cooperative Cells, Govern the Initiation and Development of Cancer
Until the end of last century, the origin and development of cancers were mostly attributed to the proliferation of their active cells, operative in collaboration with non-cancer cells of the patients. In particular, an important role was attributed to cells now recognized as mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), first considered a few decades ago. Initially, however, the role attributed to these cells was only limited.
Upper extremity (UE) exoskeletons were developed for industrial applications where assistive force enhancement was needed, but there have also been developments for use in telemanipulation and virtual reality, clinical applications such as assistance in orthopedic surgery, and orthopedic rehabilitation.
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a metabolic dysfunction characterized by elevated levels of blood glucose as well as impaired lipid and protein metabolism. The mobilization of fatty acids is augmented in insulin resistance due to the failure of lipolysis inhibition by the hormone that further augments the increase in plasma NEFA levels.
Vinpocetine was originally discovered and marketed under the trade name Cavinton around 1978. Vinpocetine is a synthetic derivative of the vincamine molecule which is an alkaloid extracted from the periwinkle plant, Vinca minor . It has been clinically used in many Asian and Europe countries for preventing and treating neurological
Varying Presentations of EBV-associated Clinical Entities with Emphasis on EBV-Associated T- and NK-cell Lymphoproliferative Disorders of Childhood
The Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) is an endemic human herpesvirus, with 90% of people demonstrating serological evidence of prior exposure to EBV. In most cases, primary infections of EBV generate mild or asymptomatic clinical courses, but may present as infectious mononucleosis if contracted during young adulthood. In a small percentage of cases, Epstein- Barr virus infection may manifest as a noncanonical reaction, yielding a wide variety of clinical manifestations.
Stroke, Oxygen and Prehospital Care: A Commentary on Current Treatments and Opportunities for Improvement
Stroke is a common and very serious illness where timely evaluation and intervention can have dramatic effects on patient outcomes.
The western diet and overuse of anti-inflammatory medication have caused a great deal of stress on the liver. Obesity and the associated inflammatory state in insulin-responsive tissues result in the release of pro-inflammatory cytokine that activates the stress-responsive MAPKs, p38 MAPK, and JNK. These MAPKs have figured prominently as critical effectors in physiological and pathophysiological hepatic inflammation.
Ischemic stroke carries a high readmission rate . Among Medicare beneficiaries hospitalized for acute ischemic stroke, 14.1% were readmitted within 30 days, 29.2% within 90 days, and 55.3% within 1 year .
Flavopiridol (Alvocidib), a Cyclin-dependent Kinases (CDKs) Inhibitor, Found Synergy Effects with Niclosamide in Cutaneous T-cell Lymphoma
Flavopiridol (FVP; alvocidib), an FDA-approved orphan drug, has been studied in clinical trials under both single treatment and combination scenarios; several singleagent Phase I and Phase II clinical trials against leukemia, lymphomas, and solid tumors are active. To date, there have been more than 50 clinical trials involving FVP in the United States. Unfortunately, almost half of patients on FVP clinical trials showed serious adverse effects, implicating appropriate dosages need to be found and an alternative way to circumvent the toxicity of FVP with synergistic agents.
APE1/Ref-1 (also called Ref-1) has been extensively studied for its role in DNA repair and reduction-oxidation (redox) signaling. The review titled: “The multifunctional APE1 DNA repair-redox signaling protein as a drug target in human disease” by Caston et. al. summarizes the molecular functions of Ref-1 and the role it plays in a number of diseases, with a specific focus on various types of cancer.
Vitamin D and Insulin Resistance in Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome and Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia-a Commentary and Natural Expansion
In our previous focused review, the journal emphasized Type 2 diabetes (T2DM), excluding intimately associated disorders that should be considered integral components of the insulin resistance (IR) syndrome e.g., polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), and gout.
Epidemiological Profile and Clinical Conditions of Women with or without Precursor Lesion for Cervical Cancer
Cervical cancer (CC) is a health condition faced by women, and affects mainly developed countries [1,2]. According to the world estimate of 570 thousand new cases, cervix cancer is on the fourth place of most frequent cases, representing 3.2% of all cancer types, and is also on the fourth place regarding mortality . The 2018 estimate was 311,365 deaths worldwide. This corresponds to an estimated risk of 15.1 per thousand women [3,4].
Chemotherapy Promotes Release of Exosomes Which Upregulate Cholesterol Synthesis and Chemoresistance in AML Blasts
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are emerging as a key mediator of intercellular communication as well as a major mechanism of functional reprogramming of cells in disease. All cells produce EVs, which freely circulate and are found in all body fluids. EVs are heterogenous, consisting of subsets of vesicles with different sizes, distinct origins, and various functions (Figure 1). They mediate a broad variety of biological events ranging from cellular activation, inflammation, blood coagulation, angiogenesis, cellular transport, and others. Among these vesicles, a subset of small EVs (30-150 nm in diameter) originating from multivesicular bodies (MVBs) in parent cells and referred to as small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) carry proteomic, genomic and functional signatures that resemble those of parent cells and are, therefore, taken as surrogates of parent cells. In cancer, tumor-derived exosomes (TEX) reflect characteristics of tumor cells and are considered candidates for “liquid tumor biopsy”. Emerging evidence shows that TEX are a major sEV subset in plasma of patients with cancer, including hematologic malignancies.
Validation of a New Test for Assessing the Quality of Life Perceived in Patients with Type 1 Diabetes
The World Health Organization defines quality of life (QoL) as “the perception that an individual has of his life, in the context of the culture in which he lives, integrating personal goals, expectations and concerns, well-being and discomfort”.
A Pilot Study for Assessing a Novel Method of Measuring Shoulder Activation in Healthy Volunteers Using Surface Electromyography
Over the years, healthcare providers have used a host of physical examinations and clinical tools to assess a patient’s physical functioning and health, but many of these assessment tools lack generalizability among physicians or the specificity and sensitivity to accurately diagnose a patient. Range of motion measures are one-way physicians assess many physical deficiencies in the upper and lower extremity.
Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. The immune system plays an important role in all steps of cancer development, growth and spreading as was repeatedly proven in a variety of experimental and clinical studies. Among the immune cells, Natural Killer cells, or NK cells, are critical to the innate immunity as one of the key effector cells of cancer immunosurveillance.
Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) mRNA vaccines have gained international acceptance and have been proven to be safe and effective [1,2]. In a study of 3,950 frontline healthcare workers with no previous laboratory documentation of COVID-19 ,
According to the WHO, obesity has more than doubled since 1980 . The reality, however, is that most of the world’s population live in places where overweight and obesity kill more people than underweight. In 2016, more than a third of adults worldwide were classified as overweight or living with obesity, as were 41 million children younger than 5 years .
Submuscular Anterior Transposition for Treatment of Ulnar Nerve Syndrome: Outcomes and Final Satisfaction
Ulnar neuropathy is the second most common peripheral neuropathy in the upper limb after carpal tunnel syndrome, with an incidence of 30 cases per 100,000 persons/year. It is characterized by the appearance of sensory symptoms such as pain, dysesthesia, and paresthesia, initially intermittent and then continuous, in the ulnar territory of the forearm and hand.
M1 and M2 Macrophages Polarization via mTORC1 Influences Innate Immunity and Outcome of Ehrlichia Infection
Macrophages are innate immune cells that play a key role in regulation of innate and adaptive immune responses against infections with several pathogens as they respond to pathogens and tissue injury, serve as antigen presenting cells priming the adaptive immune response, drive inflammation and host defense as well as repairing
Neuroinflammation is closely associated with various diseases including neuropathic pain. Microglia are immune cells in the central nervous system which are the main players of immunity and inflammation. Since microglia are activated by nerve injury, and they produce proinflammatory mediators to cause neuropathic pain, targeting activated microglia is considered to be a strategy for treating neuropathic pain.
Hamstring injuries are the most common pathology reported in professional soccer players and represent about 10-30% of all injuries. The hamstring complex is comprised of three muscles located in the posterior compartment of the thigh including the semimembranosus (SM), semitendinosus (ST), and biceps femoris (BF), which is comprised of the long head (BFLH) and short head (BFSH).
An incidental durotomy or dural tear is defined by ICD- 10 as an accidental puncture or laceration of dura during a procedure. These procedures include spinal surgery and interventional procedures such as epidural injection. The published incidence of incidental durotomy varies in the literature and is dependent on the procedure being performed, the experience of the surgeon, and patient factors but can range from 1% to 17%.
Second Generation Platelet Concentrates - L-PRF (Fibrin Rich in Platelets and Leukocytes) and Its Derivatives (A-PRF, I-PRF)-: Morphological Characteristics to be Used in Modern Regenerative Surgery. Experimental Research
Platelet preparations (PDPs) have gained success, mainly due to their high concentrations of biologically active molecules, such as growth factors and cytokines, which play an important role in tissue repair and reconstruction. Recent knowledge shows that platelets can play a new role in tissue reproduction and vascular restoration, as well as being the protagonists of inflammatory processes and immune system responses. They release bio-active proteins and other active ingredients that can affect a number of phenomena that promote cell consumption, growth and transformation (growth factors).
The outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has led to coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19); a pandemic disease that has resulted in devastating social, economic, morbidity and mortality burdens. SARS-CoV-2 infects cells following receptor-mediated endocytosis and priming by cellular proteases.
Socio-demographic Determinants, Patterns, and Treatment Outcomes of Dental Trauma Patients Treated at a Restorative Dentistry Unit, National Dental Teaching Hospital (NDTH), Sri Lanka
Traumatic dental injury (TDI) impacts the teeth and/or other hard and soft tissues within and around the mouth and oral cavity region . TDI are very common across the globe leading to 85% of patients having injuries in the oral region  which was revealed by a meta-analysis conducted in 2018 . TDIs are frequently presented as serious
Breast cancer is the most frequent malignancy in females. Due to its major impact on the population, this disease represents a critical public health problem that requires further research at the molecular level to define its prognosis and specific treatment. Basic research is required to accomplish this task and this involves cell lines as they can be widely used in many aspects of laboratory research and, particularly, as in vitro models in cancer research. MCF-7 is a commonly used breast cancer cell line, that has been promoted for more than 40 years by multiple research groups but its characteristics have never been gathered in a consistent review article.
Scalable 3D Screen Printing Technology in Pharmaceutical Manufacturing - High Degree of Freedom in Terms of Drug Choice
Additive manufacturing has the potential to revolutionize the pharmaceutical industry, enabling the production of customized drugs for the mass market. However, concerns over scalability, low mechanical resistance, low printing resolution and limited material choices have so far hindered the practical application of current 3D printing (3DP)
The Role of Selected Habits, Periodontal Disease and Oral Hygiene Status on the Occurrence and Prognosis of Oral Mucosal Lesions
Patients with an array of benign oral mucosal diseases comprising fibro-epithelial polyps, lipomas and lichen planus commonly present to Oral & Maxillofacial units. While managing their specific conditions, it is important to assess for their risk habits such as betel chewing which is associated with a high burden of periodontal disease as
The worldwide prevalence of dementia is estimated to be over 45 million people. Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia, responsible for 60-80% of cases.
COVID-19 has challenged global health and affected many countries. The disease had infected more than 16 million people and killed over 650,000 ones by the end of July 2020. According to Sahu et al., COVID-19 epidemic is the third most common coronavirus in the 21st century, resulting in numerous deaths all over the world. It has caused severe psychological stress and increased hospital visits along with increased tiredness and burnout of medical staff. The disease has also raised many problems for the management of hospitals and diagnostic-treatment centers, so that many of them have no capacity to receive patients.
Improved Wound Closure Rates and Mechanical Properties Resembling Native Skin in Murine Diabetic Wounds Treated with a Tropoelastin and Collagen Wound Healing Device
Chronic, non-healing, or slow to heal wounds present a significant and growing health problem in the United States, with an estimated 6.5 million people affected, at an annual cost of US $20 billion, with the highest risk groups represented by the elderly and the increasing prevalence of lifestyle diseases such as diabetes and obesity.
Impact of Age on Prognostic Treatment Outcomes Among Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Patients: Evidence from Sri Lanka
Improving treatment outcomes for oral cancer patients is underpinned by their disease-free survival and overall survival while ensuring sufficient levels of quality of life [1,2]. There is research evidence to support surgical treatment with or without adjuvant radiotherapy is superior as compared to curative radiotherapy with or without
Antifungal Effects of PC945, a Novel Inhaled Triazole, on Candida albicans Pulmonary Infection in Immunocompromised Mice
Candida spp. are often detected from fungal cultures or mycobiome analysis of respiratory secretions, but are not usually treated since, even if detected persistently, the presence is assumed to be benign colonization unless invasive candidiasis in deeply immunocompromised subjects is suspected.
Skeletal Muscle Weakness Often Occurs in Patients with Myalgic Encephalomyelitis / Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS)
This commentary complements data reported in Clinical Biomechanics  reporting reduced maximal handgrip strength in numerous patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis / chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) in proportion to their lowered maximal physical performances.
Food Cravings (FC) is the term commonly used to describe sensations related to an intense desire for specific consumption , and there are features that we separate into internal and external aspects related to FC 
Risks and Prevalence of Diabetic Retinopathy in Children and Young People with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is associated with microvascular and macrovascular complications.Duration of diabetes, poor glycaemic control, high blood pressure and proteinuria are reported risk factors contributing to the development of diabetes related complications.
Assessment of Attitudes toward HIV and AIDS among Undergraduate Students at a Historically Black University
HIV is no longer only a public health challenge, but also a global threat with a devastating negative impact that has claimed over 35 million lives globally. In 2017, about 36.9 million people live with HIV, and 1.8 million people becoming newly infected with the disease globally .
Leukemia is a tumor of the primary blood-forming cells. leukemia is not only a cancer of the white blood cells but also it originates in other blood cell types. Types of leukemia are categorized based on the rate of growth to acute (fastgrowing) or chronic (slower growing), and whether it arises in myeloid cells or lymphoid cells. Different types of leukemia have a different line of treatment and prognosis.
CD8+ cytotoxic T cells recognise and kill cancer cells that present immunogenic peptides bound to the cell surface major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) molecules.
SHP2 Inhibition as a Promising Anti-cancer Therapy: Function in Tumor Cell Signaling and Immune Modulation
The SHP2 phosphatase consists of one protein tyrosine phosphatase catalytic domain (PTP domain), two tandem Src homology 2 (SH2) domains (N-SH2 and C-SH2), and a C-terminal tail with two tyrosine phosphorylation sites (Tyr542 and Tyr580)
Since the discovery of escaping mechanism of tumor from negative immune regulation, the paradigm of drug discovery for anti-cancer agents has been dramatically shifted to cancer immunotherapy (e.g., dendritic cell therapy, CAR-T cell therapy, or antibody therapy) by stimulating patient’s immune system to treat cancer.
How Dental Service Organizations Strategically Navigated the Pandemic: Applauding a Successful Business Model
The dental community and broader economy have been shaken to the core since the month of March, 2020. Dr. Marko Vujicic  reported dentistry in the United States in the first quarter of 2020 enjoyed growth and was about to or fully recover from or had already overcome the downturn from the recession in 2007. Then, COVID-19 struck a
Does the Immediate Dental Implant Placement into Fresh Extraction Sockets Decrease the Marginal Bone Lose?
The insertion of dental implants immediately after teeth extractions has become a routine clinical procedure in implant dentistry. This treatment modality has received much attention and has shown favorable results [1-4]. Several studies have reported that successful osseointegration is possible when implants are inserted immediately
The question of whether or not correction of vitamin D deficiency might reduce the risks of later type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has been under debate for many decades. The necessity of vitamin D for normal insulin secretion was first identified experimentally in the 1980s.
Relative COVID-19 Vaccine Booster Effectiveness and ClinicalEpidemiological Characteristics Before and After 29 Days of Shot
Background: When the highest vaccine COVID-19 booster effectiveness (VBE) is obtained is not clearly known. Objective: To compare the cases of COVID-19 in booster vaccinated people with a time of <29 days vs. ≥ 29 days from booster to infection diagnosis and assess their relative VBE. Methodology: An observational, longitudinal and prospective case series study of adult patients with COVID-19 breakthrough infections in booster vaccinated people, in general medicine and for the period December 2021 to February 2022, during the omicron variant contagion wave.
Helicobacter pylori is a gram-negative, spiral-shaped bacterium that inhabits the gastric environment of 60.3% of the global population. Though most individuals infected with the bacterium remain asymptomatic, it is known that this infection plays a pivotal role in the development of diseases such as chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer, gastric cancer and gastric MALT lymphoma. Hence, eradication of H. pylori is associated with the potential prevention of many gastric and extra gastric diseases, such as gastric cancer.
The shoulder complex is composed of three bony structures: the clavicle, scapula, and humerus, which are connected to form three synovial (glenohumeral, acromioclavicular, and sternoclavicular) and two functional (scapulothoracic and subacromial) joints.
While cells with a 2n complement of chromosomes are defined as diploid, cells that possess greater than 2n are referred to as polyploid.
Coronary Revascularization in the Era of Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement: Treat the Patient, Manage the Disease
Coronary artery disease continues to be the greatest cause of global mortality. The prevalence of coronary artery disease in patients with severe aortic stenosis varies widely, from 80% in extreme high-risk trials to only 15% in more recent low risk trials.
Recently, Aras et al. reported that MNRR1, a nuclear DNA (nDNA)-encoded mitochondrial antigen, promotes cancer cell migration and the development of metastasis as a proof of concept supporting the participation of mitochondrial autoimmunity in breast carcinogenesis.
ASD refers to a group of complex neurodevelopmental disorders, characterized by deficits in social communication, interaction and demonstrating restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped patterns of behavior. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention forecasted that the prevalence of ASD would be 1 in 45 in USA.
Using Intralipid to Improve Delivery of Anti-Cancer Nanodrugs: Effects on RES Clearance and Toxi city, EPR, and Immune Modulation
Encapsulation of therapeutic molecules (e.g., small molecule inhibitors, mRNA, siRNA, aptamers, etc.) into nanomaterials can improve the solubility and blood circulation of the drugs, alter their biodistribution, decrease their toxicities, overcome drug resistance, and facilitate their entry into target cells. The development of anti-cancer nanodrugs has been the focus of intense study for decades. Several anti-cancer nanodrugs have been approved for clinical use all over the world.
Bromodomain and Extra-Terminal Family Protein Inhibitors: A Potentially New Therapy for Heart Disease
Bromodomain-containing protein 4 (BRD4) is a member of the mammalian bromo- and extra-terminal domain (BET) protein family, which also comprises BRD2, BRD3, and testis-specific BRDt.
Until the early sixties, the concept prevailed that alcoholic liver disease (ALD), also termed alcohol-related liver disease (ARLD), results from malnutrition commonly observed among individuals consuming chronically high amounts of alcohol rather than being causally related to the use of alcoholic beverages. However, the malnutrition concept became a matter of debate because of the clinical observation that humans, even on a normal diet and without signs of underweight or malnutrition
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is an age-related neurodegenerative disorder  and the most common cause of human dementia, accounting for approximately 60%?80% of cases. It is estimated that more than 30 million AD patients, and the number likely to increase to over 100 million by 2050 because of the increase of the elderly population .
Active cervical cancer screening in developed countries has resulted in increased early-stage diagnosis of cervical cancer in young women with a strong desire to preserve reproductive function.
The Use of Consumer Wearable Physical Activity Monitors in Clinical Populations with Functional L imitations
The prevalence of many musculoskeletal and cardiovascular diseases that cause limitations in physical functioning has increased globally  with age-adjusted rates of incidence rising for many of these diseases [2-5]. In the United States alone, chronic health conditions that limit physical function have an estimated economic impact of $200
Advances in oncology such as better access to health care system, earlier cancer diagnosis and new chemotherapies have led to longer survival of oncologic patients over the last decades. However, this population is vulnerable to cardiovascular drug-related adverse events like cardiomyopathy, which leads to heart failure and impairs survival and quality of life.
Tissues are composed of various types of interacting cells . To understand the cellular organization and function in tissues, it is necessary to identify all of the different cell types and the locations of these different cell types within tissue structures.
A Neuromuscular Integration Approach to the Rehabilitation of Forward Head and Rounded Shoulder Posture: Systematic Review of Literature
Forward head posture (FHP) and rounded shoulder posture (RSP) are common postural misalignments caused by muscular imbalance that lead to a variety of pain patterns in the neck and shoulder [1,2]. FHP prevalence ranges from 61% to 85% and is associated with RSP [3-7]. RSP prevalence ranges from 66% to 78% [3,5,7]. Importantly,
The manufacture of scaffolds for wound healing has become important, especially the formation of tissuespecific scaffolding. In order to create scaffolds, it is essential to mimic the chemical composition, physical morphology and biological functions of the human body. Scaffolds can be created by using synthetic polymers (e.g. polycaprolactone) or natural polymers (e.g. chitosan) or a combination of both. The addition of natural polymers can be very advantageous as they can avoid
Multidisciplinary treatment is widely applied for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) using liver resection/ transplantation, local ablation therapy, transarterial chemoembolization (TACE), and systemic therapy. Systemic therapy is recommended and can provide a modest prognosis for HCC in Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) staging C.
Postmenopausal Hyperhidrosis and Vasomotor Symptoms in Menopause Should be Treated Differently – A Narrative Review
Postmenopausal hyperhidrosis (PMH) is an important differential diagnosis to vasomotor symptoms (VMS) in menopause. The objective is to describe the differences in clinical presentation and treatment of the two conditions.
Are We Close to Achieving a HBV Cure? Risk for Hepatocellular Carcinoma Persists Despite Long-term HBV Suppression: An Update on Our Experience
Since the discovery of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) by Blumberg et al., great progress has been made in understanding the pathogenesis of the virus and its role in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). It is estimated that hepatitis B is responsible for about 50% of the HCC cases worldwide. Because of geographic variations in HBV incidence, the burden of HBV-related HCC (HBV-HCC) is highest in endemic areas such as Asian-Pacific and sub- Saharan Africa and lowest in the United States and the West. The hepatitis B vaccines, developed in the 1980s, transformed the evolution of hepatitis B in the modern era. This was followed by high effective anti-viral that reduced HBV infections and HBV-HCC.
The exchange of information within the cell is extremely complex. Besides the well-studied chemical signalling, physical signalling is required to fulfil spatial and temporal aspects. The Golgi apparatus and the microtubule skeleton system are the decisive structures for numerous intracellular transport tasks.
The main symptom in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is shortness of breath. Shortness of breath occurs especially with exercise and progresses over the years despite all medical treatments. One of the main mechanisms by which this symptom occurs is hyperinflation in the lungs .
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) chronically infects more than 250 million individuals worldwide and is responsible for more than 800,000 deaths per year by promoting end-stage liver diseases, among which decompensated cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) (WHO, July 2020) are prominent. Studies performed in chimpanzees or in animalversion of HBV (woodchuck HBV: WHBV) highlighted the lack of immune responses against the virus upon primary infection. Thus, HBV has been described as a “stealth” virus (i.e. a virus that does not modify/induce immune response in the cell). However, a growing number of studies describe that HBV is able to rapidly and efficiently counteract the innate immune response in a large variety of cells (hepatocytes, macrophages, Natural Killer cell…). Hereby, we focus on the role of macrophages (Mφ) during HBV infection.
In this paper we consider the hypothesis, based on our human and mouse studies, that white matter connectivity can be altered by appropriate stimulation at the theta frequency [1,2]. In one study we used optogenetics to change the output of cells in the mouse anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) at 1, 8 or 40Hz.
In the last decade, the study of nanometer-scale particles has grown exponentially worldwide. This growth is due to the broad field of nanostructures applications, which, due to their dimensions in nanometric sizes, have new properties not found in micro and macro scale. These properties result from the increase in the ratio between the surface area and volume, and the nanostructures’ size directly influences these. Tolerance to temperature, variety of colors, changes in chemical reactivity,
COVID-19 is the new emerging viral infection that already cause global public health problem [1-3]. More than 220 countries/territories are already attacked and there are more than 17 million patients around the world
Cancer nanomedicine was originally developed for more efficient delivery of chemotherapeutic agents into tumor, and has been extensively employed as a therapeutic for cancer treatment owing to its unique features in drug delivery, diagnosis and imaging, as well as the therapeutic nature of some nanomaterials themselves.
The immune system developed certain checks and balance to control or inhibit the reactivity against normal cells of the body. Uncontrolled immune responses to the non-self entities such as bacteria, viruses, parasites, or mutated self-antigens can cause an inflammatory reaction and autoimmune diseases.
Lower extremity fractures in individuals with a spinal cord injury (SCI) cause significant morbidity  and contribute to excess mortality . Early identification of persons at highest risk for fracture is possible using bone mineral density (BMD) testing by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) imaging
Nausea and vomiting are protective defense mechanisms by which vomit competent species avoid ingestion of potentially toxic substances. More specifically, vomiting is the act of forceful expulsion of gastrointestinal contents through the mouth, whereas nausea is an unpleasant painless subjective feeling that one will imminently vomit.
In 2020 we published a series of 18 patients who underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) and vaginal radical trachelectomy (VRT) as a fertility sparing alternative in stage 1B2 cervical cancer.
The Value of the Left Atrial Appendage Orifice Perimeter of 3D Model Based on 3D TEE Data in the Choice of Device Size of LAmbre™ Occluder
Preoperative optimal selection of the occluder size is crucial in percutaneous left atrial appendage (LAA) occlusion, and the maximal width of the LAA orifice is the main reference index, however it cannot fully meet the practical operation requirements. We retrospectively analyzed three-dimensional (3D) transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) and computed tomography (CT) imaging dataset of the 41 patients who underwent LAA occlusion with LAmbre™ system.
According to estimates from the International Agency for Research on Cancer, by the year 2030 there will be 22 million new cancer cases and 13 million deaths per year. The main reason for death from cancer is not the initial tumor but it’s metastasis to distant parts of the body, yet this process has remained poorly understood for quite some time.
Dendorbium Nobile Lindl. Alkaloids Suppress NF-κB and NLRP3 Signaling Pathways to Attenuate Lipopolysaccharide-induced Neuroinflammation
The important immune cells in the brain are called microglia acting as the central junction between neuroinflammation and neurodegenerative diseases. In patients of cognitive disorders and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) animal models, amoebic morphology and inflammatory pathways are activated to release numerous cells in the inflammatory factors by active microglia.
No Studies in Stroke Regarding Brain fMRI Activity and Pelvic Floor Muscle Training/Activation - Only Studies in Non-stroke Population: A Review of Neuroimaging Studies
Neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction (NLUTD) is highly prevalent in poststroke patients, leading to major impact on the quality of life (QoL) and healthcare resources. Pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) has, over the past two decades, been recommended as first-line treatment for neurologically healthy patients with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS).
Since December 2019, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) caused by 2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) has resulted in 89,000 cases of Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), formerly known as Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia (NCP) in China, including 2,450 deaths.
Breast Cancer is the most regularly diagnosed type of cancer in women in the world, making up on its own 25% of all cases, or nearly 2 million new cases in 2018, and 15% of all cancer related deaths, or around 626,700 deaths for that same year.
Modern Rehabilitation Strategies of Post-Stroke Motor Disfunctions: Functional Electrical Stimulation and Biofeedback-Stabilometric Postural Training
More than 80% of patients after a stroke have limited daily activity due to a complex polymorphic motor deficiency of various nature and severity, which leads to postural disorders (PD) . Because of paresis, develops different changes in the musculoskeletal system (MSS) such as PD, restrictions of movements in the joints, impaired
Primary Temporal Bone Meningioma Presenting as Chronic Mastoiditis and Sigmoid Sinus Thrombosis: Report of a Case with Literature Analysis
Meningiomas are common, primary brain tumors, accounting for up to 30% of intracranial neoplasms; they are usually slow-growing and benign . Primary extra cranial meningiomas are rare, and approximately 2% of meningiomas are located extra cranially . Furthermore, primary extra cranial meningiomas of the ear and temporal bone are exceedingly rare .
The double trigger (DT) is the second asynchrony in frequency, after the failed cycles . Compared to the latter, it can be more injurious since it usually increases tidal volume (Vt), transmural and transvascular pressure to levels that can cause ventilator-induced lung damage [2,3]; and self-inflicted by the patient (P_SILI) , as well diaphragmatic injury.
Voltage-gated Kv1.3 potassium channels control the membrane potential, cellular activation and cell death. Kv1.3 channels have been extensively studied in autoimmune disorders and are promising drug targets for the treatment of solid cancer.
Elevated body mass index (BMI) has been associated with an increased risk of cancer and has been shown to have a negative impact on survival in patients with breast, prostate, oral cancer, and leukemia. In plasma cell dyscrasias, obesity has not only been shown to be a risk factor for the development of multiple myeloma, but also has been associated with a higher rate of progression from monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance (MGUS) to multiple myeloma, and if intervened on, has bee
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a heart muscle disorder and is the most common form of Mendelianinherited heart disease, affecting approximately 0.2% of the global population. In adults the disease is often inherited as an autosomal dominant trait caused by mutations, mainly in one of the 23 cardiac sarcomere protein genes.
In silico Analysis for the Repurposing of Broad-spectrum Antiviral Drugs against Multiple Targets from SARS-CoV-2: A Molecular Docking and ADMET Approach
SARS-CoV-2 belongs to the genus Beta of the Coronaviridae family of enveloped single-stranded, positive-sense ribonucleic acid (RNA) with a genome length of 30,000bp. The virion is composed of various non-structural (RNA dependent RNA polymerase also known as RdRp) and structural proteins such as Spike (S), Nucleocapsid (N), Matrix (M), and Envelope (E) proteins.
The study of surface and interfacial science via analytical techniques is a growing interest in the easy mode of diagnosing probe molecules adsorbed on the surface. In that line, Raman spectroscopy is an analytical method that is inefficient to carry the surface analysis employing their weak cross-sectional scattering until the discovery of Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) in late 1970s
Psychosocial Aspects of Drug Prescription: Recognizing These Phenomena to Improve the Quality of Clinical Practice
The medical prescription corresponds to a complex act, which requires knowledge, professional experience, specific skills, a great sense of responsibility and an ethical attitude.
Gastric cancer (GC), also known as stomach cancer, is a worldwide health problem. Anatomically, it can occur from the gastroesophageal junction to distal portions of the stomach. Considering both sexes, worldwide, it is the 5th most common neoplasm (5.7%) and the 3rd cause of mortality among malignancies, leading to approximately 782,000 deaths in 2018. The incidence varies geographically but 50% of new cases are diagnosed in developed countries. High incidence is observed in Asia, Latin America, and in the central and eastern parts of Europe. There are several ways to classify GC, but the most used is Lauren’s Classification, which proposes two main histological groups: intestinal and diffuse. This classification is important because there are marked etiological, pathological, and epidemiological differences between the subgroups, guiding the clinical approach for each patient.
Various types of forces, such as cohesive and adhesive forces, are involved in physical and biological processes. Many of these processes appear to have developmental features through different scales of nature, and such processes may reflect a universal dynamic of accommodation involving the universal dimensional constants
However, the entire coagulation cascade is dysfunctional, in progressed chronic diabetes and cancer patients.
In the last few decades there has been a growing interest in the role of transposable elements (TEs), colloquially referred to as “jumping genes” in human biology [1-4]. TEs, and a specific subset of this clade, retrotransposons, are widespread throughout eukaryote genomes. The socalled long interspersed elements-1 (LINE-1 or L1) are of especial interest because they represent the only class of retrotransposons in the human genome that are fully autonomous,
Influence of Clinical Risk Factors on Outcomes in Men with Stage I Non-Seminomatous Germ Cell Tumor Undergoing Robot-Assisted Retroperitoneal Lymph Node Dissection
Retroperitoneal lymph nodes are often the first landing site of metastatic disease in men with testicular cancer. Primary retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND) for clinical stage I NSGCT can accurately surgically stage patients who may have nodal micrometastases, and in some cases, can serve as the primary therapy when volume of metastasis is low.
Molecular Detection of Plasmid - Mediated Quinolone Resistant Genes in Uropathogenic E. coli from Tertiary Referral Hospital in Tehran , Iran
Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) due to Escherichia coli is the most common bacterial infection. Fluoroquinolones are commonly used for the treatment of UTI because isolated microorganisms are frequently resistant to aminopenicillins and trimethoprim- sulfamethoxazole and fluoroquinolones are given orally .
Healthy Fetal Outcomes Using A Novel Treatment For Maternal Lyme Disease And Babesiosis During Consecutive Pregnancies: A Case Study and Literature Review
The genus Babesia comprises over 100 species of tick-transmitted protozoal intraerythrocytic pathogens (piroplasms) , causing malarial-type illness. The most common human pathogens in the United States are B. microti  and Babesia duncani (WA- 1) ; Less common species include Babesia MO-1  and KO-1 , as well as Babesia divergens and Babesia venatorum (EU-1) in Europe.
The most important elemental-carbon-based materials include zero-, one-, two-, and three-dimensionalstructured fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, graphene, and graphite, respectively. These non-metallic carbon materials have properties that are similar to semiconducting metals.
Primary tumors of the small bowel are a rare condition, accounting for 2 to 3% of gastrointestinal tumors. Malignant melanoma is the most common metastatic tumor found in the gastrointestinal tract . It can be localized in different sites, from the oral cavity to the anus. It can also be present as a primary lesion.
Antisense Inhibition of accA in E. coli Suppressed luxS Expression and Increased Antibiotic Susceptibility
Multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria, which are resistant to more than one antibiotic, present an enormous challenge for medical communities and organizations worldwide. For example, Acinetobacter baumannii is a highly contagious MDR gram-negative bacterium (GNB) that inhabits hospitals and causes 64% of urinary tract infections associated with the use of catheters. Alexopoulou et al. found that there were more healthcare-associated infections caused by GNB than Gram-positive Cocci (GPC) bacte
Therapeutic compliance has been defined as the degree to which the behaviour of a person corresponds with the recommendations of the health professional .
Synthetic Lethal Drug Combinations Targeting Proteasome and Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors in TP53-Mutated Cancers
Tumors harboring mutations in certain oncogenes are often dependent on activation of certain pathways which becomes essential for the survival of the cancer cells. This condition is formally known as synthetic lethality, a state when simultaneous loss of two genes is lethal to a cancer cell, while the loss of the individual genes is not.
Commentary on: “Multiple Single Cannulation Technique of Arteriovenous Fistula: A Randomised Controlled Trial”
One of the most important renal nursing procedures is the cannulation of a vascular access (VA), a procedure that is carried out on every single dialysis treatment. VA cannulation method is still a procedure that reflects local unit practices and the skill of the individual nurse
The etiology of fetal growth restriction is rooted in inadequate maternal-placental vascular malperfusion (MVM) of the placenta. Risk factors for MVM are broad and include maternal, fetal, and placental antecedent determinants.
Acanthamoeba was first described by Castellani and represents single-cell eukaryotes existing as either cellular trophozoites (25–40 ?m) or under adverse conditions (desiccation, lack of food, and extreme pH or temperature fluctuations), as dormant cysts (13–20 ?m). The cysts are known to be resistant to antibiotics, the effects of chlorine, and very low temperatures, and have been shown to maintain viability for over 20 years.
We are witnessing the evolution of the diagnostic imaging that is rapidly becoming available to Women’s Health physicians (OB/GYN’s), enabling the use of technology to augment our ability to medically palpate on examination of the patient, to identify conditions which we were unable to appreciate a short time ago.
In the article, “Mental Health Framework: Coronavirus pandemic in post-Katrina New Orleans” , Shervington and Richardson offer recommendations about how to anticipate and address disaster-related, trauma exposures associated with the coronavirus pandemic
VA-Radiation Oncology Quality Surveillance Program: Enhancing Quality Measure Data Capture, Measuring Quality Benchmarks and Ensuring Long Term Sustainability of Quality Improvements in Community Care
High quality cancer care improves patient survival and quality of life. Radiation plays an important role in cancer management, given that over 50% of all cancer patients receive radiation therapy as either a primary treatment or for palliation. Ensuring quality of radiotherapy specifically, is therefore important to achieving optimal patient outcomes.
The Role of Direct Oral Anticoagulants in Advanced Chronic Kidney Disease – Questions and Future directions
With the advent of the direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs), patients requiring anticoagulation for common conditions such as atrial fibrillation and venous thromboembolism no longer need to worry about dietary restrictions or regular monitoring of the international normalized ratio which complicated warfarin treatment.
Generating Awareness and a Planned Multidisciplinary Treatment Approach Can Save Both the Sight and Life in Retinoblastoma in Developing Countries
While rare, retinoblastoma is the most common (1:16000 – 18000 live births) intraocular and life threatening tumor of childhood [1,2]. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), 66% of children present with symptoms before 2 years of age and 95% before 5 years of age. About 8000 new cases are detected annually with the highest incidence in Africa and India. In fact, more than 1400 cases each year are from India .
Rituximab is a chimeric (20% rodent and 80% human) monoclonal antibody that binds to the CD20 antigen present on the cell surface and leads to depletion of mature B-cells [1,2]. It is the first approved monoclonal antibody to be used in the therapy of indolent B-cell non- Hodgkin’s lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia
Loneliness is a distressing experience perceived as isolation and rejection. It has been recognized as a social problem throughout the existence of Homo sapiens, and is now considered, in conjunction with social isolation, to be an emergent public health problem affecting all age groups
In a recent paper, we introduced a variant of the classical Simeoni tumor growth model, and illustrated its value in assessing tumor growth in a reproducible mouse model for mammary tumors. Our modification consisted of incorporating delay differential equations in the mathematical formulation of the Simeoni model, to represent the delay in drug action often observed under chemotherapeutic or immunotherapeutic regimens.
Identification of the Molecular Basis of Anti-fibrotic Effects of Soluble Guanylate Cyclase Activator Using the Human Lung Fibroblast
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is an irreversible fibrotic lung disease with unknown etiology [1-3]. Although two approved medications, pirfenidone and nintedanib, are able to slow down lung function decline in IPF patients, many other chronic pathologic conditions such as dyspnea and pulmonary hypertension (PH) and overall disease progression,
Multidisciplinary Acute Care of Central Retinal Artery Occlusion with a Stroke Paradigm: A Call to Action
Central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) is a painless ophthalmologic emergency with potential for irreversible vision loss. Similar to ischemic stroke, CRAO occurs when there is sudden obstruction of the central retinal artery, leading to ischemic injury to the retina and subsequent cell death. Continuous occlusion and ischemia of the retina progresses to permanent damage to retinal cells and loss of vision.
Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] is a genetically determined lowdensity lipoprotein (LDL) particle that is comprised of apolipoprotein(a) [apo(a)] and apolipoprotein B-100 (apoB) moieties. It is well-established that elevated Lp(a) is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD).
With readily available cross-sectional imaging, asymptomatic localized renal masses (LRMs) are often incidentally found. The standard management for LRM has been surgical resection, however, detection of masses that are benign or with low metastatic risk has led to interest in minimally invasive alternatives such as percutaneous thermal ablation (TA) or active surveillance
Levels of Intellectual Disability and Categories of Communicative Skills When conducting a patient interview, it is crucial to understand the individuals’ level of ID as well as their expressive language skills in order to communicate effectively
Mega-Dose Dietary Riboflavin in Treatment in Keratoconus, Post-Refractive Cornea Ectasia and Migraine. Has Its Time Arrived?
Recently, several studies and investigators have shown the beneficial effects of high dose dietary riboflavin (vitamin B2) in the treatment of keratoconus, post-refractive (LASIK, PRK & Radial Keratotomy) ectasia (with sunlight exposure) and patients treated with our own protocol (NIH Clinical Study – www.clinicaltrials.gov - # NCT 03095235) discovered significant relief for intractable migraine headaches and/or ophthalmic migraine (classic migraine visual symptoms without headache).
In order to implement the knowledge of cancer to monitor its evolution and setting, in the last decade, new minimally invasive and repeatable samples collection have been developed such as liquid biopsy.
Comment on “Systematic Identification and Analysis of Light-responsive Circular RNA and Coexpression Networks in Lettuce (Lactuca sativa)”
Light is one of the most important environmental factors that affect plant growth and development, and it is also the main energy source for plants and other living things. Plants use light to assimilate inorganic matter into organic matter through photosynthesis and store them in the form of chemical energy. As an environmental signal, light mediates the
Prospective Evaluation of Effect of Metformin on Activation of AMP-activated Protein Kinase (AMPK) and Disease Control in a Sub-group Analysis of Patients with GI Malignancies
Observational studies have demonstrated association of metformin with reduced cancer incidence and mortality in multiple cancer types, including gastrointestinal (GI) malignancies. Anti-neoplastic effects of metformin are believed through many mechanisms including activation of AMP-activated protein kinase, which controls mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) growth regulatory pathway.
Gender Disparities in Outcomes Following Pulmonary Embolism Treatment in the Intensive Care Unit; A Multi-center Retrospective Cohort Study
Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a blockage of blood flow in the pulmonary artery bed that can result in a life-threatening and potentially reversible right ventricular failure . PE remains one of the leading causes of poor prognosis and death, particularly when a shock or right ventricular failure occurs . According to studies, PE is generally manifested in a nonspecific manner
Measuring the Impact of Stressors through Self-reporting on the Temporal Nature of How Perceived Stress Emerges and Dissipates
Chronic stress exposure is linked to health and performance deficits including mental disorders, chronic diseases, and metabolic conditions. Stress management is an active process of coping with internal or external stressors to prevent or dampen biological and psychological strain
Uniportal VATS Lobectomy for Lung Cancer: Feasibility and Cost Effectiveness in a Single Center Experience
In last decades, video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) together with robotic-assisted thoracic surgery (RATS) can be considered the biggest innovation in thoracic surgery. This approach drastically changed the way of performing surgical operations, improving patient’s outcome undergoing thoracic surgery.
Ketamine has long been used in the field of anesthesia . Its rapid and long-acting analgesic effects associated with its dissociative properties have also established its use in prehospital and emergency department patients.
It is now well accepted that the ionizing radiation-generated reactive oxygen species (ROS), that constitute ~2/3 of the effects of external beam radiation, do not only produce direct tumor cell death, but also affect the surrounding microenvironment. Moreover, this indirect effect of radiation may result in systemic effects, specifically the initiation of an inflammatory response.
Although NK cells are recognized as effector lymphocytes of the innate immune system, they also regulate the adaptive immune response by releasing inflammatory cytokines and developing immunological memory. Unlike other lymphocytes such as T or B cells, NK cells do not express rearrangeable, antigen-specific receptors.
Apoptosis is a physiological response in development and homeostasis of metazoans. Apoptosis is triggered during pathological events as a means to renew affected tissues and eliminate cancer cells. The immune system regulates the extrinsic pathway of apoptosis, where signals such as TNFα or displayed ligands on the surface of immune cells trigger signal cascades by death receptors present on targeted cells.
Karyotypic Profile of Chronic Myeloid Leukemia in Patients Diagnosed at Tertiary Level in Afghanistan
Balanced translocation resulting in fusion of the Abelson gene (ABL1) from chromosome 9q34 with the breakpoint cluster region (BCR) gene on chromosome 22q11.2 is the pathognomonic molecular driver of CML. The resulting BCRABL 1 fusion gene is both the diagnostic as well as therapeutic target of CML. The first agent with tyrosine kinase inhibitor activity that was licenced in 2000 for treatment of CML patients, was Imatinib, gradually followed by multiple agents with higher efficacy.
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