Volume 2, Issue 6, p265-363
Articles published in this issue are Open Access and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY NC) where the readers can reuse, download, distribute the article in whole or part by mentioning proper credits to the authors.
Signaling pathways form the fundamental basis of physiology and pathology. The Hippo signaling pathway plays physiologic roles in organ size control as well as tissue regeneration/repair, while aberrant Hippo signaling has been implicated in fibrotic disease and various types of cancer.J Cell Immunol, 2020, Volume 2, Issue 6, p265-275 | DOI: 10.33696/immunology.2.054
Influenza A Virus Infection Induces White Adipose Tissue Browning: A Metabolic Adaptation to Infection?
Mammals have two main types of adipose tissue (commonly defined as “fat”): the white adipose tissue (WAT), which represents the main energy reservoir of the body and provides lipids as substrates for other tissues, and the brown adipose tissue (BAT), which uses lipids for heat production (a process called “thermogenesis”).J Cell Immunol, 2020, Volume 2, Issue 6, p276-283 | DOI: 10.33696/immunology.2.055
Single-cell Approach to Generate Functional TCR-Ts: A Potential Accelerator of TCR-T Cell Therapy for Infectious Diseases
Acute or chronic infectious diseases caused by human transmissible viruses (such as cytomegalovirus (CMV), severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARSCoV), middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), and SARS-CoV-2 causing the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic) have posed tremendous threats to human health.J Cell Immunol, 2020, Volume 2, Issue 6, p284-288 | DOI: 10.33696/immunology.2.056
Use of Sysmex Hematology Analyzer based Hematopoietic Progenitor Cell (XN-HPC) Count in Allogeneic Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplant Setting; Is It Substantially Reliable?
Allogeneic stem cell transplantation remains the only curative option for various benign and malignant hematological disorders. The procedure of allogeneic stem cell transplantation entails the administration of adequate doses of hematopoietic progenitor cells, aiming for complete and sustained hematopoietic reconstitution.J Cell Immunol, 2020, Volume 2, Issue 6, p289-293 | DOI: 10.33696/immunology.2.057
The Mammalian Gut Microbiome, Immune Responses and Disease: From Observational to Causal Relationships
The mammalian gut is the largest organ of adaptive immune responses with a total surface area of 300 m2 of the gut epithelium. The intestinal mucosa contains at least 80% of the body’s activated B cells.J Cell Immunol, 2020, Volume 2, Issue 6, p294-300 | DOI: 10.33696/immunology.2.058
A Native 51 kDa Leishmania Membrane Protein Revealed as a Novel Antigenic Candidate for Immuno-Diagnosis of Human VL and PKDL diseases
Visceral leishmaniasis, a life threatening protozoan parasitic disease, is mainly caused by Leishmania donovani complex and is prevalent in the Indian subcontinent, East Africa and Brazil. VL patients even after successful treatment might show other clinical revelations of skin called post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL).J Cell Immunol, 2020, Volume 2, Issue 6, p301-307 | DOI: 10.33696/immunology.2.059
Role of Irreversible Post-Translational Modifications of Autoantigens in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: LL37 as a Model Autoantigen
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is the prototype of Immune-globulin (Ig)-immune-complex driven disease, in which autoantibody-complexes are deposited in tissues and contribute to inflammation.J Cell Immunol, 2020, Volume 2, Issue 6, p308-314 | DOI: 10.33696/immunology.2.060
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a spectrum of pathologies ranging from simple steatosis to fibrosis and cirrhosis, is the most common cause of chronic liver disease, affecting over 80% of adults with obesity, one third of obese children ages 3-18 in North America  and ~10% of the general pediatric population.J Cell Immunol, 2020, Volume 2, Issue 6, p315-325 | DOI: 10.33696/immunology.2.061
High Throughput Image Analysis for Cardiotoxicity Study using Human Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes
Severe cardiotoxic side-effects are found in patients who are treated with anti-cancer drugs from both earliest chemotherapeutics (for example anthracyclines, such as Doxorubicin) and novel therapeutic compounds, such as monoclonal antibodies and small molecules inhibiting tyrosine kinases; e.g. crizotinib.J Cell Immunol, 2020, Volume 2, Issue 6, p326-332 | DOI: 10.33696/immunology.2.062
Potentials of Interferons and Hydroxychloroquine for the Prophylaxis and Early Treatment of COVID-19
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) causes a mild respiratory infection in most individuals. However, a portion of patients develop a severe infection resulting in the need for mechanical ventilation and ultimately death. Currently, the median infection fatality rate of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is estimated to be 0.27% .J Cell Immunol, 2020, Volume 2, Issue 6, p333-340 | DOI: 10.33696/immunology.2.063
Newly Identified Function of Caspase-6 in ZBP1-mediated Innate Immune Responses, NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation, PANoptosis, and Host Defense
Caspases are critical for regulating cell death, immune responses, and homeostasis. These cysteine-dependent endoproteases cleave their substrates after certain aspartic acid residues.J Cell Immunol, 2020, Volume 2, Issue 6, p341-347 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.33696/immunology.2.064
Gliomas are an aggressive class of primary brain tumors with high rates of recurrence and a dismal overall survival. While existing therapeutic strategies provide some benefit, their effects are variable, and no curative modalities exist.J Cell Immunol, 2020, Volume 2, Issue 6, p352-358 | DOI: 10.33696/immunology.2.066
The American Cancer Society estimates there will be 156,540 new diagnoses and 53,200 deaths from colorectal cancer (CRC) in the United States in 2020.J Cell Immunol, 2020, Volume 2, Issue 6, p359-363 | DOI: 10.33696/immunology.2.067
Apoptosis is a physiological response in development and homeostasis of metazoans. Apoptosis is triggered during pathological events as a means to renew affected tissues and eliminate cancer cells. The immune system regulates the extrinsic pathway of apoptosis, where signals such as TNFα or displayed ligands on the surface of immune cells trigger signal cascades by death receptors present on targeted cells.
Prevalence of Symptom Clusters in Cancer Patients at First Presentation in Palliative Care Clinic as per Different Disease Groups
Cancer has its own disease burden and patients usually suffer from symptom clusters when they are referred for palliative treatment. Identification of symptom cluster trajectories will help clinician to take into account measures that can optimize quality of life of palliative patients. Therefore the aim of this paper is to determine the overall prevalence of symptoms and symptoms clusters in different disease groups according to etiology at the time of first visit to Palliative care clinic by using HIS Palliative First Assessment note indicating Edmonton symptom scale.
Although NK cells are recognized as effector lymphocytes of the innate immune system, they also regulate the adaptive immune response by releasing inflammatory cytokines and developing immunological memory. Unlike other lymphocytes such as T or B cells, NK cells do not express rearrangeable, antigen-specific receptors.
The transient receptor potential mucolipin 1 (TRPML1) is an endolysosomal channel belonging to the TRP family. Clinically, mutations of TRPML1 have been responsible for a severe lysosomal storage disorder called mucolipidosis type IV.
N4-acetylcytidine (N4A) is an organic compound and a metabolite of transferrable ribonucleic acid. Its molecular formula is C11H15N3O6. Earlier studies suggest that N4A was mainly found on tRNA and 18S rRNA, while recent studies have shown that there is also a large amount of N4A on mRNA, whose abundance is not even lower than the m7G cap modification carried by mRNA.
Uniportal VATS Lobectomy for Lung Cancer: Feasibility and Cost Effectiveness in a Single Center Experience
In last decades, video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) together with robotic-assisted thoracic surgery (RATS) can be considered the biggest innovation in thoracic surgery. This approach drastically changed the way of performing surgical operations, improving patient’s outcome undergoing thoracic surgery.
In order to implement the knowledge of cancer to monitor its evolution and setting, in the last decade, new minimally invasive and repeatable samples collection have been developed such as liquid biopsy.
Despite the advances in diagnostic and therapeutic field, colorectal cancer (CRC) still remains the third most common cause of death worldwide, with more than 600,000 cancer-related deaths per year.
During the last few decades, immunotherapy is considered to be an important approach to help our immune system to fight various kinds of diseases, such as tumor. Sometimes, it works very well for some types of cancers, for example: bladder cancer, colorectal cancer, breast cancer and lymphoma.
Synthetic Lethal Drug Combinations Targeting Proteasome and Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors in TP53-Mutated Cancers
Tumors harboring mutations in certain oncogenes are often dependent on activation of certain pathways which becomes essential for the survival of the cancer cells. This condition is formally known as synthetic lethality, a state when simultaneous loss of two genes is lethal to a cancer cell, while the loss of the individual genes is not.
The gut microbiome or gut flora is a vast community of microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, protozoa, and fungi that inhabit the digestive tract of the human and other animals [1,2]. In the human body, bacterial species colonize into the oral cavity, skin, vagina, and placenta, however, the largest population of microorganisms resides in the intestine.
Cancer is a worldwide public health issue that affects millions of people every year. In 2018 there were 17 million newly documented cases of cancer globally (8.8 million in men and 8.2 million in women), leading to 9.6 million deaths. Cancer is a vastly heterogeneous disease, with over 100 different types of cancer currently identified in humans; the most common types of cancer are lung, female breast, bowel and prostate, these four types account for more than 40% of all new cancer case
In the last 10 years, the marker “Human Epididymis protein 4 (HE4)” for the management of gynecological tumors has entered powerfully in the world literature. At the moment, carrying out an accurate research in the main scientific portals such as PubMed, we can find more than 2,000 works concerning Cancer antigen-125 (Ca125), but those concerning HE4 are less than 400.
Breast cancer is the second most common cancer worldwide, affecting nearly one in eight women. Accurate cancer staging is essential for determining the patient’s prognosis and for choosing the appropriate treatment.
However, the entire coagulation cascade is dysfunctional, in progressed chronic diabetes and cancer patients.
Development of HPV 16/18 E6 Oncoprotein Paperbased Nanokit for Enhanced Detection of HPV 16/18 E6 Oncoprotein in Cervical Cancer Screening
According to global cancer statistics GLOBOCAN, carcinoma of cervix is ranked as the fourth most common malignancy among women worldwide with an estimation of 570,000 cases and 311,000 deaths in 2018. It is the second most common female malignancy in Lowand- Middle Income Countries (LMICs). In Kenya, the prevalence is 25 cases per 100,000 women. Approximately 75% cases of cervical cancer are caused by persistent infections of the cervical mucosal epithelium with carcinogenic types of human papillomaviruses (HPVs) mainly 16 and 18.
Gastric cancer (GC), also known as stomach cancer, is a worldwide health problem. Anatomically, it can occur from the gastroesophageal junction to distal portions of the stomach. Considering both sexes, worldwide, it is the 5th most common neoplasm (5.7%) and the 3rd cause of mortality among malignancies, leading to approximately 782,000 deaths in 2018. The incidence varies geographically but 50% of new cases are diagnosed in developed countries. High incidence is observed in Asia, Latin America, and in the central and eastern parts of Europe. There are several ways to classify GC, but the most used is Lauren’s Classification, which proposes two main histological groups: intestinal and diffuse. This classification is important because there are marked etiological, pathological, and epidemiological differences between the subgroups, guiding the clinical approach for each patient.
Botulinum toxin (BT) is a potent poisonous neurotoxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum and related species . Its action consists of inhibiting neuromuscular junctions by blocking the release of acetylcholine and desensitizing sensory nerves.
Safety and Efficacy of s-MOX Regimen in Patients with Colorectal Cancer Who Developed Cardiotoxicity Following Fluoropyrimidine Administration: A Case Series
5-fluorouracil (5-FU), an antimetabolite in the fluoropyrimidine class, is the third most commonly used chemotherapeutic agent worldwide for the treatment of solid malignancies . Despite advances in novel cancer therapies, commonly used in combination with fluoropyrimidines, 5-FU remains one of the most effective and safe chemotherapy agents to manage colorectal cancer (CRC).
When immune cells are activated, they undergo metabolic change in order to have sufficient energy to function effectively. The Krebs cycle is one of the most important pathways involved in this response and citrate, a critical component of this pathway, regulates carbohydrate and lipid metabolism.
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