Articles published in this issue are Open Access and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY NC) where the readers can reuse, download, distribute the article in whole or part by mentioning proper credits to the authors.
Deubiquitinase as Potential Targets for Cancer Immunotherapy
During the last few decades, immunotherapy is considered to be an important approach to help our immune system to fight various kinds of diseases, such as tumor. Sometimes, it works very well for some types of cancers, for example: bladder cancer, colorectal cancer, breast cancer and lymphoma.
The Endothelium: Global Integrator of Vascular-Immune Interactions
Endothelial cells (ECs) are mesodermally-derived modified simple squamous epithelial cells that collectively form the vascular endothelium–the vast living shield that lines the luminal surface of all blood vessels, the lymphatic circuit, and heart. Endothelial cell phenotypes vary among different organs and tissues with regard to specific barrier characteristics, and can be altered by environmental stimuli
Progression of Autoantibodies Anti-Gad and Anti-IA2 in Type 1A Diabetics Aged 5 to 21 Years in Cote d’Ivoire
Type 1A diabetes is an autoimmune disease, the final consequence of a slow and gradual process of ß-cell destruction of pancreatic islet Langerhans cells leading to ketoacidosis in the absence of treatment. This destruction of the β cells, responsible for the production of insulin, begins with the initiation of the autoimmune reaction triggered by certain environmental factors and, after several years of evolution, leads to the clinical signs of the disease when the mass of ß cells
Commentary on “Epigenetically Altered T Cells Contribute to Lupus Flares”
The recently published manuscript entitled “Epigenetically Altered T Cells Contribute to Lupus Flares” summarizes recent advances in our understanding of how the environment alters the immune system to cause flares of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in genetically predisposed people, and why it affects women approximately 9 times more often than men
Design of a Peptide Against the Interaction Between Immune Response Protein TRAF5 and the Oncoprotein E6 from HPV
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the human papillomavirus (HPV) affects more than 600 million people worldwide, being the most common sexually transmitted disease (STD). There were over 250,000 deaths due to cervical cancer worldwide and most of them took place in developing countries (WHO). There are more than 80 HPV types and more than 40 infect the genital tract
Proteomic Functional Signatures during the Priming of Human Th17 Cells
A combination of regulated responses toward pathogens and minimized autoimmune reactions is needed for the balanced function of the immune system. Amongst the immunologically important CD4+ lymphocytes, T helper 17 (Th17) cells help maintain homeostasis and provide protection against pathogens of fungal or bacterial origins
TNFAIP8: Inflammation, Immunity and Human Diseases
Inflammation can be caused by various environmental factors, including microbial infection and toxic chemical exposure. In response to inflammation, immune cells like macrophages, B and T lymphocytes, fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and various stromal cells secrete soluble polypeptide cytokine Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha (TNF?)
The Role of NETosis in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is a devastating autoimmune disease that affects women to men at a ratio of 9:1 and is predominant in those of African ancestry. In SLE, the presence of autoantigens results in aberrant immune activation leading to systemic inflammation that predominantly affects the brain, kidneys, blood, and skin. Current guidelines recommend treatment with immunosuppressive drugs like prednisone, cyclophosphamide, azathioprine, and even some antimalarial drugs
Dual Expression of GARP in Immune and Glioma Cells: Yet Another Mechanism of Cancer Immune Escape
Glioblastomas (GB) are amongst the most lethal human tumors exhibiting a highly aggressive behavior manifested by tumor cell infiltration into surrounding tissue. Furthermore, GBs are notorious for their high degree of resistance to cytotoxic treatments [1-3].
Targeting "Do Not Eat Me" Signal CD47 in Cancer Immunotherapy
Cells of the innate and adaptive arm of the immune system including macrophages, natural killer (NK) cells, neutrophils, T cells, and B cells, etc. are crucial for the maintenance of the body’s homeostatic balance and prevention of multiple diseases including cancer.
What Can Go Wrong When Applying Immune Modulation Therapies to Target Persistent Bacterial Infections
Persistence is a transient phenotypic adaptation that confers survival to a small percentage of cells (between 0.01 and 10%) in genetically identical bacterial populations. Nevertheless, persistence greatly affects the evolution of acquired drug resistance mutations by decreasing antibiotic efficacy and generating a reservoir of surviving cells that can contribute to the onset of chronic infectious disease.
Is Platelet Desialylation a Novel Biomarker and Therapeutic Target in Immune Thrombocytopenia?
Platelets are small anuclear cells shed from the megakaryocyte, at a rate of ~1011/day , maintaining a blood concentration of 100-450 x 109/L in healthy adults. As the second most abundant circulating cells, they are becoming increasingly recognized for their versatility and cross-talks in cancer, development, immunology among others.
A Novel Class of RIP1 or RIP3 Dual Inhibitors
Necroptosis is a form of programed necrosis mediated by receptor-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase 1 (RIP1) and RIP3 and the subsequent phosphorylation of mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein (MLKL) [1-4]. Necroptosis has been implicated in multiple human diseases such as myocardial infarction, atherosclerosis, and abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). Levels of RIP3 are elevated in the human tissues affected by these diseases.
Recent Advances Show That Abnormal T-Regulatory Cell Function Perpetuates Chronic Inflammatory Arthritis
The principal mechanism governing immune central tolerance is regulated by T-cells that reside in a pathway wherein the death of immature T-cells is coupled to the development of CD4+ regulatory T (Treg) cells. In that regard, Treg cells undergo development in the thymus or peripheral tissues upon recognition of self-antigens.
Tenofovir at the Crossroad of the Therapy and Prophylaxis of HIV and HBV Infections
Tenofovir, alias (R)-PMPA, was first divulged as an anti- HIV agent in 1993 . That it would in 2012, become the first antiretroviral agent, approved by the US FDA (Food and Drug Administration) to prevent HIV infection, could have been predicted from the findings of Tsai et al.
CAR-T cell Goes on a Mathematical Model
Hundreds of new clinical trials were recently launched using chimeric antigen receptor-bearing T cells (CAR-T cell). Concentrated on hematological malignancies, with a 90% overall survival rate for 2 months on acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL-B) in young patients after two or more lines of therapy . The most surprising results were the long-lasting effect of this therapy, resulting in more than 50% overall survival after a year follow-up.
A New Window onto the Pacemaker of the Heart, the Sinus Node, Provided by Quantitative Proteomics and Single- Nucleus Transcriptomics
Hypothesis-driven research has dominated biomedical science for at least the past century. There are many papers and grant applications that will have been rejected because they are not hypothesis-driven. For example, Haufe reports that the NIH guidelines for RO1 grants states that “A strong grant application is driven by a strong, solid hypothesis with clear research objectives”.
Naltrexone as a Novel Therapeutic for Diabetic Corneal Complications
Diabetes is approaching epidemic proportions worldwide. In the United States, there are more than 30 million individuals having a confirmed diagnosis of diabetes [1,2]. Worldwide, the number of people with diabetes exceeds 400 million , and is expected to reach 550 million by 2030. Diabetes is associated with complications that affect nearly all systems, including vision.
Autism – A Potential Autoimmune Disease Neurodegeneration-Induced Autoantibodies against Neural Proteins
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by difficulty in communication and repetitive behaviors . ASD definition includes: atypical autism, high-functioning autism, and Asperger’s disorder. Individuals with ASD may have extraordinarily high IQ, normal intellectual abilities, or intellectual disability (ID), known as ASD with ID.
Multiple Roles of the Interleukin IL-17 Members in Breast Cancer and Beyond
Worldwide, breast cancer is the most-common invasive cancer in women. Commonly used treatments include surgery, hormonal therapy, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and targeted therapy. Failure of these treatments is often due to intrinsic or acquired resistances and is responsible for most relapses of cancer . Heterogeneity among patients and tumors, together with the versatility of cancer make drug resistance more challenging to deal with.