The differential diagnosis of a mediastinal mass includes benign and malignant etiologies like lymphomas, thymic tumors, thyroid goiter, infections such as tuberculosis, chronic granulomatous disorders such as sarcoidosis, germ cell tumors, among others. Based on its location, they can be classified as anterior, medium or posterior.
Case report is an important kind of article in medicine. The case report can be in several forms. A report might be on the new finding, new technique, rare condition or lesson learnt [1-2]. The case report on pitfall and error is interesting. It is useful for giving lesson learnt to the reader.
The Global Rise of Chronic Diseases: Why Broaden the Paradigm to Include Tick-borne Illness and Environmental Toxin Exposure?
The incidence of chronic diseases is rapidly increasing worldwide. It has been calculated that, in 2001, chronic diseases contributed to approximately 46% of the global burden of disease and 60% of the total reported deaths with that number expected to increase to 57% by 2020, when chronic diseases will account for almost 75% of all deaths worldwide.
Arbovirology, Arbovirus, Arthropod-borne virus, these are informal name that refers to all virus types infecting “blood sucker” arthropod vector, capable to multiply the virus and to transmit it to vertebrates through their bite. These virus-vectors are essentially mosquitoes (male only), ticks and sandflies feeding mainly on mammals and sometime on other vertebrates (e.g. birds, reptiles).
Primary tumors of the small bowel are a rare condition, accounting for 2 to 3% of gastrointestinal tumors. Malignant melanoma is the most common metastatic tumor found in the gastrointestinal tract . It can be localized in different sites, from the oral cavity to the anus. It can also be present as a primary lesion.
Healthy Fetal Outcomes Using A Novel Treatment For Maternal Lyme Disease And Babesiosis During Consecutive Pregnancies: A Case Study and Literature Review
The genus Babesia comprises over 100 species of tick-transmitted protozoal intraerythrocytic pathogens (piroplasms) , causing malarial-type illness. The most common human pathogens in the United States are B. microti  and Babesia duncani (WA- 1) ; Less common species include Babesia MO-1  and KO-1 , as well as Babesia divergens and Babesia venatorum (EU-1) in Europe.
Wound healing is a dynamic process whereby cellular structures and the tissue layers are reconstructed. Adult wound healing can be categorized into three stages: inflammatory phase, proliferative phase, and remodelling phase. Blood cells like macrophages, neutrophils, extracellular matrix and mediators, various proteins, and various genes play an important role in these phases.
Safety and Efficacy of s-MOX Regimen in Patients with Colorectal Cancer Who Developed Cardiotoxicity Following Fluoropyrimidine Administration: A Case Series
5-fluorouracil (5-FU), an antimetabolite in the fluoropyrimidine class, is the third most commonly used chemotherapeutic agent worldwide for the treatment of solid malignancies . Despite advances in novel cancer therapies, commonly used in combination with fluoropyrimidines, 5-FU remains one of the most effective and safe chemotherapy agents to manage colorectal cancer (CRC).
The double trigger (DT) is the second asynchrony in frequency, after the failed cycles . Compared to the latter, it can be more injurious since it usually increases tidal volume (Vt), transmural and transvascular pressure to levels that can cause ventilator-induced lung damage [2,3]; and self-inflicted by the patient (P_SILI) , as well diaphragmatic injury.
A 59-year-old left hand dominant female was evaluated by a physical therapist. The patient had an 8-year history of chronic intermittent left elbow pain with a recent exacerbation occurring after moving furniture. Aggravating factors included holding a coffee cup, picking up trash bags, and lifting heavy dishes. Symptoms were eased by ice and Meloxicam as prescribed by her primary care provider.
Primary Temporal Bone Meningioma Presenting as Chronic Mastoiditis and Sigmoid Sinus Thrombosis: Report of a Case with Literature Analysis
Meningiomas are common, primary brain tumors, accounting for up to 30% of intracranial neoplasms; they are usually slow-growing and benign . Primary extra cranial meningiomas are rare, and approximately 2% of meningiomas are located extra cranially . Furthermore, primary extra cranial meningiomas of the ear and temporal bone are exceedingly rare .
Red cell membrane in patients with haemoglobin H (Hb-H) disease and other haemoglobinopathies is rigid and thus red blood cells are fragmented during passage through narrow capillary beds, especially through the splenic sinusoids and the liver [1,2]. These fragments are frequently seen in peripheral blood films.
Since December 2019, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) caused by 2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) has resulted in 89,000 cases of Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), formerly known as Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia (NCP) in China, including 2,450 deaths.
Cortical Visual Impairment (CVI): An Atypical Manifestation of Osmotic Demyelination Syndrome in a Child
Osmotic Demyelination Syndrome (ODS) is a unique process of selective demyelination and destruction of oligodendrocytes and astrocytes in specific areas of the brain that usually occurs a few days after an osmotic stress . ODS has been described most frequently in association with a rapid correction of hyponatremia, though it may occur with other electrolyte or metabolic abnormalities.
Imatinib Induced Hypopigmentation and Neutropenia in a Patient with Gastric Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor
Imatinib is a selective inhibitor of the bcr-abl tyrosine kinase making it a potential treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), as well as a selective inhibitor of KIT protein tyrosine kinase, and PDGF receptor, and is the treatment of choice in patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs)
Multiple myeloma (MM) manifests as neoplastic proliferation of plasma cells in the bone marrow associated with monoclonal paraprotein in the blood and/or urine, and evidence of end organ damage that can be attributed to the underlying plasma cell proliferative disorder. The median age at diagnosis of multiple myeloma is 70 years, and the incidence increases with age.
It is long known that melanoma has the ability to metastasize widely. Unusual sites of metastases are seen including intracardiac. The literature reports cases of cardiac metastases however, most reports pre-date the more recent era of immunotherapy and targeted agent use and do not describe systemic treatment responses.
A Challenging Case of Central Nervous System Involvement (CNSi) with Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL): A Case Report
Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) is a mature B cell neoplasm characterized by a progressive accumulation of monoclonal B lymphocytes. It manifests primarily in the blood. Infiltration of CLL lymphocytes outside of this site is relatively rare and is defined as extra medullary CLL.
A 69-year-old woman with hypertension, hyperlipidemia, sleep apnea, gastroesophageal reflux disease, and recent knee replacement was brought to the emergency room (ER) for syncope. She had her physiotherapy session earlier in the day and became symptomatic with dizziness, shortness of breath and had loss of consciousness.
Bannayan Zonana Syndrome: An Unusual Cause of Intussusception and Protein Losing Enteropathy in a Child
Bannayan-Zonana syndrome (BRRS) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by macrocephaly, numerous soft tissue and visceral hamartomas, and lipomas. Because of the risk of fatal bleeding and visceral neoplasia in adulthood, recognizing this disease is critical.