Volume 2, Issue 4, p228-299
Articles published in this issue are Open Access and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY NC) where the readers can reuse, download, distribute the article in whole or part by mentioning proper credits to the authors.
Previously characterized as a purely immune mediated disease, sepsis is now recognized as a dysregulated multisystem response against a pathogen. Recognition of the infectious agent by pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs) can initiate activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway and promote the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines. During sepsis, the activation of NF-κB is dysregulated and results in cytokine storm, or the pathologic release of cytokines.J Cell Signal, 2021, Volume 2, Issue 4, p228-234 | DOI: 10.33696/Signaling.2.055
Sepsis is highly prevalent, and is one of the main causes of mortality among hospitalized patients. Ethanol consumption in large quantities compromises the normal functioning of the body, leading to dysfunction of multiple different organ systems. The association between sepsis and ethanol is not fully understood, but it is well accepted that ethanolJ Cell Signal, 2021, Volume 2, Issue 4, p235-241 | DOI: 10.33696/Signaling.2.056
ZBP1 has aroused a wide interest since it was identified as the first cytosolic dsDNA sensor ahead of the finding of cGAS in 2013. However, the investigations on ZBP1 declined when researchers found the binding of ZBP1 with dsDNA is not absolutely required for the activation of innate response.J Cell Signal, 2021, Volume 2, Issue 4, p242-247 | DOI: 10.33696/Signaling.2.057
Chronic IL-1 Exposed AR+ PCa Cell Lines Show Conserved Loss of IL-1 Sensitivity and Evolve Both Conserved and Unique Differential Gene Expression Profiles
Inflammation drives prostate cancer (PCa) progression. While inflammation is a cancer hallmark, the underlying mechanisms mediating inflammation-induced PCa are still under investigation. Interleukin-1 (IL-1) is an inflammatory cytokine that promotes cancer progression, including PCa metastasis and castration resistance. We previously found that acute IL-1 exposure represses PCa androgen receptor (AR) expression concomitant with the upregulation of pro-survival proteins, causing de novo accumulation of castration-resistant PCa cells.J Cell Signal, 2021, Volume 2, Issue 4, p248-260 | DOI: 10.33696/Signaling.2.058
Guanylin Peptides Signaling: Insights into Guanylate Cyclase C Dependent and Independent Signaling Pathways
Guanylin peptides (GPs) and their receptor, guanylate cyclase C (GC-C), have recently become a topic of great interest in metabolic research. Guanylin and uroguanylin are the most investigated GPs and they belong to a larger family of natriuretic peptides. GPs play a physiological role in regulation of electrolyte balance via the intestine and the kidney by regulating the energy balance via their action in the brain.J Cell Signal, 2021, Volume 2, Issue 4, p261-268 | DOI: 10.33696/Signaling.2.059
Anti-tumor Mechanisms of Short-chain Fatty Acids, and the Relationship between the Gut Microbiome, Carcinogenesis, Tumor Growth, and Proliferation in Colorectal Carcinoma
We reviewed the anti-tumor mechanisms of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) as well as the relationship between the gut microbiome and the pathology of colorectal carcinoma (CRC). According to our in silico analysis of human CRC cell lines, it was shown that SCFAs suppress various genes and transcription factors that participate in tumor growth/proliferation and cell turnover, and butyric acid displayed the strongest inhibitory effects among SCFAs.J Cell Signal, 2021, Volume 2, Issue 4, p269-280 | DOI: 10.33696/Signaling.2.060
Cell signaling pathways involve several proteins, called kinases, to pass on vital messages from the transmembrane-proteins, e.g., receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) to the nucleus of a cell through a cascade of processes for various activities such as controlled cell division, proliferation, apoptosis, metabolism, DNA replication and repair. Alterations in these signaling proteins combined with genetic and/or epigenetic mutations spawn various types of cancer that empowers the cells to ignore or maneuver the immune signals and carry on felonious activities such as uncontrolled cell division and growth, genetic instability, angiogenesis around the tumor in hypoxia, eluding the body’s immune system, cell migration, and invasion of surrounding healthy cells.J Cell Signal, 2021, Volume 2, Issue 4, p281-299 | DOI: 10.33696/Signaling.2.061
Although NK cells are recognized as effector lymphocytes of the innate immune system, they also regulate the adaptive immune response by releasing inflammatory cytokines and developing immunological memory. Unlike other lymphocytes such as T or B cells, NK cells do not express rearrangeable, antigen-specific receptors.
Flow Cytometric Characterization of Accidental Cell Death Highlights Connections to Regulated Cell Death
Damage-Associated Molecular Patterns (DAMPs) are known by their nature to cause inflammatory responses in numerous disease states from cancer, trauma to age related diseases (e.g. atherosclerosis, Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases), these molecules are released by cells undergoing cell death.
The transient receptor potential mucolipin 1 (TRPML1) is an endolysosomal channel belonging to the TRP family. Clinically, mutations of TRPML1 have been responsible for a severe lysosomal storage disorder called mucolipidosis type IV.
It is now well accepted that the ionizing radiation-generated reactive oxygen species (ROS), that constitute ~2/3 of the effects of external beam radiation, do not only produce direct tumor cell death, but also affect the surrounding microenvironment. Moreover, this indirect effect of radiation may result in systemic effects, specifically the initiation of an inflammatory response.
Cyclic Nucleotide Signaling Pathways in Apicomplexan Parasites Provide a Valuable Source for Novel Drug Targets
Malaria is one of the most important disabling human, tropical disease caused by different Plasmodium species, which are protozoan parasites belonging to the Apicomplexa. The Apicomplexan parasites have a plastid like structure the “apicoplast” and comprise the genera Plasmodium, Toxoplasma and Cryptosporidium causing malaria, toxoplasmosis, and cryptosporidiosis.
Ubiquitin Proteasome System Regulates Biological Particles Interaction in Particle Disease (PD) via NF-κB Signaling
Considering their outstanding mechanical character, it is inevitable to utilize titanium and titanium composite for biomedical engineering application [1-6]. However, the particles releasing from these bulks or composites of biomaterials after long term implanting in human body will cause cell apoptosis or cell death, inflammation, bone
In order to implement the knowledge of cancer to monitor its evolution and setting, in the last decade, new minimally invasive and repeatable samples collection have been developed such as liquid biopsy.
In a recent paper, we introduced a variant of the classical Simeoni tumor growth model, and illustrated its value in assessing tumor growth in a reproducible mouse model for mammary tumors. Our modification consisted of incorporating delay differential equations in the mathematical formulation of the Simeoni model, to represent the delay in drug action often observed under chemotherapeutic or immunotherapeutic regimens.
Glucocorticoids (GCs) are defined by their role in maintaining glucose homeostasis and natural GCs are a class of corticosteroids secreted by the adrenal cortex. Cortisol is the most important natural GC in humans. Cellular cortisol levels are regulated by the tissue-specific metabolic enzymes 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 and 2 (11β-HSD 1 and 2); 11β-HSD 1 converts inactive cortisone to active cortisol, while 11β-HSD 2 has the opposite function.
Today, cancer is the second leading cause of death, with about 9.6 million deaths globally in 2018 . At the end of the 19th century, Paul Ehrlich contributed a milestone to cancer research by introducing chemotherapy as a promising tumor treatment approach. Since then, cancer treatment has undergone tremendous advances, with chemotherapy still being a widely used cancer treatment method today, however, often associated with severe side effects.
Influence of Clinical Risk Factors on Outcomes in Men with Stage I Non-Seminomatous Germ Cell Tumor Undergoing Robot-Assisted Retroperitoneal Lymph Node Dissection
Retroperitoneal lymph nodes are often the first landing site of metastatic disease in men with testicular cancer. Primary retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND) for clinical stage I NSGCT can accurately surgically stage patients who may have nodal micrometastases, and in some cases, can serve as the primary therapy when volume of metastasis is low.
Breast cancer is the second most common cancer worldwide, affecting nearly one in eight women. Accurate cancer staging is essential for determining the patient’s prognosis and for choosing the appropriate treatment.
However, the entire coagulation cascade is dysfunctional, in progressed chronic diabetes and cancer patients.
Botulinum toxin (BT) is a potent poisonous neurotoxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum and related species . Its action consists of inhibiting neuromuscular junctions by blocking the release of acetylcholine and desensitizing sensory nerves.
In silico Analysis for the Repurposing of Broad-spectrum Antiviral Drugs against Multiple Targets from SARS-CoV-2: A Molecular Docking and ADMET Approach
SARS-CoV-2 belongs to the genus Beta of the Coronaviridae family of enveloped single-stranded, positive-sense ribonucleic acid (RNA) with a genome length of 30,000bp. The virion is composed of various non-structural (RNA dependent RNA polymerase also known as RdRp) and structural proteins such as Spike (S), Nucleocapsid (N), Matrix (M), and Envelope (E) proteins.
When immune cells are activated, they undergo metabolic change in order to have sufficient energy to function effectively. The Krebs cycle is one of the most important pathways involved in this response and citrate, a critical component of this pathway, regulates carbohydrate and lipid metabolism.
How Traditional Healers Diagnose and Treat Diabetes Mellitus in the Pretoria Mamelodi Area and How Do These Purported Medications Comply with Complementary and Alternative Medicine Regulations
CAM is widely used by patients to treat and prevent certain diseases, providing emotional and physical support . The National Centre for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) defines CAM as a “group of diverse medical and health care systems, practices, and products that are not presently considered to be part of conventional medicine” .
Worldwide, obesity is a public health concern and a metabolic ailment characterized by excessive adipose tissue accumulation resulting from an imbalance of energy expenditure and energy intake . This disorder is a known risk factor for cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and metabolic
Tyrosine kinase-type cell surface receptor HER2- targeted therapies have dramatically improved breast cancer patients’ outcome compared to conventional chemotherapies. In the clinic, HER2 monoclonal antibody trastuzumab with chemotherapy represent the gold standard treatment of HER2-positive breast cancer.
Insulin resistance has been studied extensively at systemic, organ, tissue and cellular and molecular levels. Overnutrition plays an essential role in the development of chronic metabolic diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. For subjects without genetic defects, the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes is a graduate process. How the transition from an insulinsensitive state to an insulin-resistant state occurs, and what the roles of nutrients are in the process have not been fully understood. Here, we try to summarize the current understanding of insulin-regulate gene expression in the liver, and describe a phenomenon of hepatic insulin resistance at gene expression (HIRAGE), which may be linked to overnutrition.
Vivek Kumar Pandey, Himanshu Pawankumar Gupta
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