Volume 2, Issue 2, p38-73
Articles published in this issue are Open Access and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY NC) where the readers can reuse, download, distribute the article in whole or part by mentioning proper credits to the authors.
A New Window onto the Pacemaker of the Heart, the Sinus Node, Provided by Quantitative Proteomics and Single- Nucleus Transcriptomics
Hypothesis-driven research has dominated biomedical science for at least the past century. There are many papers and grant applications that will have been rejected because they are not hypothesis-driven. For example, Haufe reports that the NIH guidelines for RO1 grants states that “A strong grant application is driven by a strong, solid hypothesis with clear research objectives”.J Cell Immunol, 2020, Volume 2, Issue 2, p38-41 | DOI: 10.33696/immunology.1.017
Diabetes is approaching epidemic proportions worldwide. In the United States, there are more than 30 million individuals having a confirmed diagnosis of diabetes [1,2]. Worldwide, the number of people with diabetes exceeds 400 million , and is expected to reach 550 million by 2030. Diabetes is associated with complications that affect nearly all systems, including vision.J Cell Immunol, 2020, Volume 2, Issue 2, p42-46 | DOI: 10.33696/immunology.1.018
Autism – A Potential Autoimmune Disease Neurodegeneration-Induced Autoantibodies against Neural Proteins
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by difficulty in communication and repetitive behaviors . ASD definition includes: atypical autism, high-functioning autism, and Asperger’s disorder. Individuals with ASD may have extraordinarily high IQ, normal intellectual abilities, or intellectual disability (ID), known as ASD with ID.J Cell Immunol, 2020, Volume 2, Issue 2, p47-54 | DOI: 10.33696/immunology.1.019
Worldwide, breast cancer is the most-common invasive cancer in women. Commonly used treatments include surgery, hormonal therapy, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and targeted therapy. Failure of these treatments is often due to intrinsic or acquired resistances and is responsible for most relapses of cancer . Heterogeneity among patients and tumors, together with the versatility of cancer make drug resistance more challenging to deal with.J Cell Immunol, 2020, Volume 2, Issue 2, p55-64 | DOI: 10.33696/immunology.1.020
Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma (PDAC) represents 90% of all pancreatic malignancies . To date, PDAC is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death and its incidence is rising to become the second one in the next decade . Two major public health problems, obesity and type 2 diabetes, are important etiology factors involved in PDAC development.J Cell Immunol, 2020, Volume 2, Issue 2, p65-67 | DOI: 10.33696/immunology.1.021
Phosphoinositol 3 kinase (PI3K) defines a class of lipid kinases that have the ability to phosphorylate the inositol ring 3?-OH group in inositol phospholipids and therefore produce phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate (PIP3) . PI3K encompasses a family of enzymes divided into: Class IA PI3K which includes three isomers (?, ?, ?) and Class IB which include the group (?).J Cell Immunol, 2020, Volume 2, Issue 2, p68-73 | DOI: 10.33696/immunology.1.022
Angioimmunoblastic T cell lymphoma (AITL) is one of the most common T-cell lymphomas, second only to peripheral T-cell lymphoma not otherwise specified (PTCL-NOS). Initially AITL was considered a non-malignant lymphadenopathy with immune hyperactivation, nowadays being classified as a PTCL.
In the last 10 years, the marker “Human Epididymis protein 4 (HE4)” for the management of gynecological tumors has entered powerfully in the world literature. At the moment, carrying out an accurate research in the main scientific portals such as PubMed, we can find more than 2,000 works concerning Cancer antigen-125 (Ca125), but those concerning HE4 are less than 400.
Dendorbium Nobile Lindl. Alkaloids Suppress NF-κB and NLRP3 Signaling Pathways to Attenuate Lipopolysaccharide-induced Neuroinflammation
The important immune cells in the brain are called microglia acting as the central junction between neuroinflammation and neurodegenerative diseases. In patients of cognitive disorders and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) animal models, amoebic morphology and inflammatory pathways are activated to release numerous cells in the inflammatory factors by active microglia.
Diabetes mellitus is a common metabolic disorder that present with abnormal glucose metabolism. This metabolic disease is prevalent in many countries, worldwide. It is no doubt there might be a chance that diabetes mellitus might co-occur with other medical problems.
Inhaled budesonide benefits patients with COVID-19. ProLung™-budesonide enables the sustained, low dose administration of budesonide within a delivery vehicle similar to lung surfactant.
Phosphoinositol 3 kinase (PI3K) defines a class of lipid kinases that have the ability to phosphorylate the inositol ring 3?-OH group in inositol phospholipids and therefore produce phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate (PIP3) . PI3K encompasses a family of enzymes divided into: Class IA PI3K which includes three isomers (?, ?, ?) and Class IB which include the group (?).
Effector CD4+ T cells (i.e. Th1, Th2, Th17) are essential in the adaptive immune system’s specific elimination of different classes of pathogens, such as viruses, bacteria, and parasites, while regulatory T cells shut these inflammatory responses off once a pathogen has been cleared . Interestingly, effector T cells preferentially utilize
Cytokines (IL-1 β, IL-6, IL-18, TNF-α) in Blood and Cerebrospinal Fluid in Neonatal Hypoxia/Ischemia)
Perinatal brain injury is an important clinical and socioeconomic entity. It is a syndrome of impaired brain function in the early days of life, and it is a consequence of inadequate brain oxygenation before, during or shortly after birth, with high mortality rates and early and late morbidity rates.
Molecular docking approaches explore the receptor-ligand conformations within the binding sites of macromolecular targets . Structure-based drug discovery is widely used by the scientific community in Medicinal Chemistry to estimate the ligand-receptor binding free energy by evaluating critical phenomena involved in the intermolecular recognition process [2,3].
The western diet and overuse of anti-inflammatory medication have caused a great deal of stress on the liver. Obesity and the associated inflammatory state in insulin-responsive tissues result in the release of pro-inflammatory cytokine that activates the stress-responsive MAPKs, p38 MAPK, and JNK. These MAPKs have figured prominently as critical effectors in physiological and pathophysiological hepatic inflammation.
ZBP1 has aroused a wide interest since it was identified as the first cytosolic dsDNA sensor ahead of the finding of cGAS in 2013. However, the investigations on ZBP1 declined when researchers found the binding of ZBP1 with dsDNA is not absolutely required for the activation of innate response.
Neuroblastoma is derived from the developing sympathetic nervous system and is the most common extracranial solid tumor of childhood.
Immune Cells and Transcriptional Signatures Revealed Novel Regulators and Predict Clinical Response to Biologic Therapy in Ulcerative Colitis
Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD), which includes Crohn’s Disease (CD) and Ulcerative Colitis (UC), has a heterogeneous pathogenesis underlined by genetic predisposition, intestinal barrier dysfunction, impaired immune response, and microbiota imbalance [1-3]
IL-22-mediates Cross-talk between Tumor Cells and Immune Cells Associated with Favorable Prognosis in Human Colorectal Cancer
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cause of cancer related death worldwide. Its outcome depends on different factors. On one hand there are cancer related features, including mutations, microsatellite status, and methylation alterations.
Cancer remains one of the leading causes of death worldwide despite a significant progress in cancer diagnostics, treatment and prophylactics during last decades. It is generally accepted that the development and progression of cancer are closely associated with dysregulated functioning and diminishing of local and systemic immune responsiveness.
Interleukin (IL)-2 was first identified as a potent T cell growth factor in 1976  and cloned in 1983 . In the late 1990s, IL-2 gained further attention as the first immunotherapy demonstrating clinical efficacy against metastatic cancer, as high dose IL-2 was approved by the United States Food & Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma in 1992 and metastatic melanoma in 1998.
Commentary on the Clinicopathological Characteristics Prognosis and Immune Microenvironment Mapping in MSI-H/ MMR-D Endometrial Carcinomas
TME contains various cell types (malignant cells, immune cells, fibroblasts, endothelial cells, etc.) and extracellular components (cytokines, growth factors, hormones, extracellular matrix, etc.). Tumor heterogeneity, characterized by each tumor’s distinct TME cellular composition and states and the interplay between these components, may play a critical role in tumor initiation, progression, therapeutic efficacy, and patient survival.
Imatinib Induced Hypopigmentation and Neutropenia in a Patient with Gastric Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor
Imatinib is a selective inhibitor of the bcr-abl tyrosine kinase making it a potential treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), as well as a selective inhibitor of KIT protein tyrosine kinase, and PDGF receptor, and is the treatment of choice in patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs)
Differential Expression of Long Non-coding Ribonucleic Acid (RNA) Genes in Endometriosis-associated Ovarian Cancer (EAOC): A Pilot Meta-analysis for Pathological Insights and Potential Diagnostic Biomarker Identification
Ovarian cancer affects 15 women per 100,000 in Europe  but it is not one disease. Epithelial malignancy the most common type of ovarian malignancy and defines the groups termed carcinoma [2,3]. Other malignant subtypes include sarcomas, germ cell tumors and sex-cord stromal tumors . Ovarian carcinomas are subdivided based on histological features, the most common being high-grade serous carcinoma which makes up around 70% of ovarian carcinomas [2,4]. Up to 10% of ovarian carcinomas are endometrioid subtype, having phenotypic and molecular resemblances to endometroid adenocarcinomas that arise in the endometrial cavity [3,5] Clear cell carcinoma (OCCC) and endometrioid carcinoma of the ovary (EnOC) occur on a background of ovarian endometriosis in as many as 70% of cases [6,7]. OCCC is equally as common as endometroid type, perhaps reflecting this shared origin and collectively are often referred to as Endometriosis-Associated Ovarian Carcinomas (EAOCs). Mucinous carcinoma is less common than endometriosisrelated carcinomas at around 3% of ovarian carcinomas .
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