Volume 2, Issue 2, p48-74
Articles published in this issue are Open Access and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY NC) where the readers can reuse, download, distribute the article in whole or part by mentioning proper credits to the authors.
Pregnancy and Hepatitis B Immunization: A Commentary on Maternal Knowledge and Vertical Transmission Risks
The paper Maternal knowledge of the risk of vertical transmission and offspring acquisition of hepatitis B, recently published in Annals of Hepatology, provides unique insight on a topic not previously studied in the USA. The research paper discusses important topics on maternal hepatitis B infections.Arch Gastroenterol Res, 2021, Volume 2, Issue 2, p48-54 | DOI: 10.33696/Gastroenterology.2.026
Viable but nonculturable (VBNC) bacteria are deeply dormant phenotypic variants that are characterized by a loss of culturability in conventional culture media, yet retain some viability markers. Thus, low metabolic activity, nutrient uptake, membrane integrity, and respiration are all detectable in these dormant cells. In 1982, the VBNC state was first described for Escherichia coli and Vibrio cholerae. Shortly afterwards, VBNC Salmonella enteriditis were found to regain culturabilityArch Gastroenterol Res, 2021, Volume 2, Issue 2, p55-62 | DOI: 10.33696/Gastroenterology.2.027
How medications whose major biologic effect is to reduce bile acid synthesis favorably affect the course of a variety of cholestatic and metabolic liver diseases is not immediately apparent. Also, the most frequently used plasma biomarkers for evaluating benefit, alkaline phosphatase and conjugated bilirubin , provide different information. The former may be misleading with respect to the course of the disease and therefore it is important to focus on the pathophysiologic basis for its use.Arch Gastroenterol Res, 2021, Volume 2, Issue 2, p63-67 | DOI: 10.33696/Gastroenterology.2.028
Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a severe developmental anomaly with an estimated global prevalence at birth of about 2.3 in 10,000 live births. Despite recent advances in antenatal diagnosis, fetal interventions and postnatal management, the condition continues to have a high mortality due to pulmonary hypoplasia and pulmonary hypertension and affected infants can suffer long-term morbidity. In a prospective national population cohort study from the United Kingdom and Ireland,Arch Gastroenterol Res, 2021, Volume 2, Issue 2, p68-73 | DOI: 10.33696/Gastroenterology.2.029
As the new editor-in-chief of Archives of Gastroenterology Research (AGR) I cordially welcome all current readers of AGR and future contributors to AGR. Together with my editorial team of AGR we encourage scientists and clinicians involved in the care of patients with gastrointestinal diseases to submit their interesting reports to AGR with the aim to be published following fair evaluation by external peer reviewersArch Gastroenterol Res, 2021, Volume 2, Issue 2, p0-74 | DOI: 10.33696/Gastroenterology.2.030
Bacterial communication via quorum sensing (QS) molecules, as well as toxin-antitoxin (TA) gene modules located on bacterial chromosomes are well-studied mechanisms. Escherichia coli mazEF is a stress-induced TA system mediating cell death requiring a QS extracellular death factor (EDF), the pentapeptide NNWNN. MazF is an endoribonuclease specific for ACA sites. During adverse conditions, the activated MazF generates a stress induced translation machinery, composed of MazF-processed mRNAs and selective ribosomes that specifically translate these processed mRNAs.
Gender Disparities in Outcomes Following Pulmonary Embolism Treatment in the Intensive Care Unit; A Multi-center Retrospective Cohort Study
Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a blockage of blood flow in the pulmonary artery bed that can result in a life-threatening and potentially reversible right ventricular failure . PE remains one of the leading causes of poor prognosis and death, particularly when a shock or right ventricular failure occurs . According to studies, PE is generally manifested in a nonspecific manner
The hepatitis C virus (HCV) genome was isolated during the late 1980s using molecular cloning techniques. It is recognized as the cause of most cases of percutaneously transmitted non-A, non-B hepatitis. It is estimated, that up to 200 million people worldwide are infected with the hepatitis C virus (HCV), more than 3% of the world population.
Spontaneous Resolution of Infected Pancreatic Necrosis after Fistulization into Upper Gastrointestinal Tract
A 67-year-old female with a history of arterial hypertension and previous hysterectomy, was recovered, in July 2019, for moderately-severe acute biliary pancreatitis with evidence of stones in gallbladder and bile duct and pancreatic necrosis on imaging (Magnetic Resonance Cholangiopancreatography. A contrast enhanced CT, a week after the admission, showed necrotic areas in the pancreas and a large peripancreatic fluid collection (60 mm long) with air pockets within (acute necrotic collection, with signs of infection. Since she was haemodynamically stable and there was no evidence of organ failure, according to “step-up approach”, she was managed medically with antibiotics (piperacillin-tazobactam + metronidazole) and fluids.
The etiology of fetal growth restriction is rooted in inadequate maternal-placental vascular malperfusion (MVM) of the placenta. Risk factors for MVM are broad and include maternal, fetal, and placental antecedent determinants.
Medullary breast carcinoma (MBC) is a rare tumor, representing 3% to 5% of invasive breast carcinomas. The World Health Organization defines it as a well-circumscribed invasive tumor, composed of poorly differentiated cells, arranged in sheets, without gland formation and a scarce collagen stroma with the presence of a very prominent lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate.
Antisense Inhibition of accA in E. coli Suppressed luxS Expression and Increased Antibiotic Susceptibility
Multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria, which are resistant to more than one antibiotic, present an enormous challenge for medical communities and organizations worldwide. For example, Acinetobacter baumannii is a highly contagious MDR gram-negative bacterium (GNB) that inhabits hospitals and causes 64% of urinary tract infections associated with the use of catheters. Alexopoulou et al. found that there were more healthcare-associated infections caused by GNB than Gram-positive Cocci (GPC) bacte
Cancer is a worldwide public health issue that affects millions of people every year. In 2018 there were 17 million newly documented cases of cancer globally (8.8 million in men and 8.2 million in women), leading to 9.6 million deaths. Cancer is a vastly heterogeneous disease, with over 100 different types of cancer currently identified in humans; the most common types of cancer are lung, female breast, bowel and prostate, these four types account for more than 40% of all new cancer case
Healthy Fetal Outcomes Using A Novel Treatment For Maternal Lyme Disease And Babesiosis During Consecutive Pregnancies: A Case Study and Literature Review
The genus Babesia comprises over 100 species of tick-transmitted protozoal intraerythrocytic pathogens (piroplasms) , causing malarial-type illness. The most common human pathogens in the United States are B. microti  and Babesia duncani (WA- 1) ; Less common species include Babesia MO-1  and KO-1 , as well as Babesia divergens and Babesia venatorum (EU-1) in Europe.
Low-level Progesterone on the Day of hCG Injection Has No Detrimental Effect on the Pregnancy Outcome after IVF with GnRH-a Protocol: A Retrospective Study
To investigate the effect of low progesterone (P) level on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) injection on the outcome of in vitro fertilization (IVF) with GnRH- agonist (GnRH-a) long protocol.
Molecular Detection of Plasmid - Mediated Quinolone Resistant Genes in Uropathogenic E. coli from Tertiary Referral Hospital in Tehran , Iran
Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) due to Escherichia coli is the most common bacterial infection. Fluoroquinolones are commonly used for the treatment of UTI because isolated microorganisms are frequently resistant to aminopenicillins and trimethoprim- sulfamethoxazole and fluoroquinolones are given orally .
Influence of Clinical Risk Factors on Outcomes in Men with Stage I Non-Seminomatous Germ Cell Tumor Undergoing Robot-Assisted Retroperitoneal Lymph Node Dissection
Retroperitoneal lymph nodes are often the first landing site of metastatic disease in men with testicular cancer. Primary retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND) for clinical stage I NSGCT can accurately surgically stage patients who may have nodal micrometastases, and in some cases, can serve as the primary therapy when volume of metastasis is low.
Impact of Estradiol Supplementation during Luteal Phase Support on the In vitro Fertilization Clinical Outcome: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
At present, progesterone administration is widely used. There is no agreement on whether estradiol (E2) addition should be supplement to progesterone (P) as luteal phase support (LPS).
Fatty acid oxidation disorders unfortunately can result in the sudden unexplained death of infants. Mitochondrial trifunctional protein (MTP) deficiency is one such disease where long-chain fatty acids cannot be fully oxidized through beta-oxidation which, can lead to cardiac arrythmias in an infant.
The COVID-19 pandemic has provoked a global, rapid increase of cases due to the high infectivity of the etiological agent, COVID-19 virus. In February 2021, over 110 million confirmed COVID-19 cases with 1 million deaths were reported worldwide (www.who.int).
Pain Outcomes with an Elliptical Regimen (POWER) Study: Identifying the Proper Dosage of Exercise for Therapeutic Effect in Persons with Chronic Back Pain
Low back pain (LBP) is one of the most prevalent conditions that will affect 70-85% of individuals at some point in their life . LBP accounts for 2.3% of all visits to the physician, and is the most common area of the body to experience pain . Exercise has been a mainstay for managing persons with chronic low back pain for almost 40
Beneficial Effects of Surgical Closure of Atrial Septal Defect Outweigh Potential Complications in Sick Infants
Atrial septal defect (ASD) is a common congenital heart disease diagnosed during childhood. Persistently increased pulmonary blood flow and dilated right atrium (RA) and right ventricle (RV) result in multiple symptoms and morbidities in adulthood; untreated adults may develop exercise intolerance, congestive heart failure, atrial tachyarrhythmias, pulmonary hypertension (PH), embolic stroke, or even death.
Breast Cancer is the most regularly diagnosed type of cancer in women in the world, making up on its own 25% of all cases, or nearly 2 million new cases in 2018, and 15% of all cancer related deaths, or around 626,700 deaths for that same year.
Recommendation of Tetanus Toxoid Vaccination for Pregnant Females in a Country that Achieved Elimination of Maternal and Neonatal Tetanus. A commentary on the Study: Knowledge and Health Beliefs of Reproductive-age Women in Alexandria about Tetanus Toxoid Immunization
The study “knowledge and health beliefs of reproductive-age women in Alexandria about tetanus toxoid immunization” has shed a new light on the attitude of obstetricians in Alexandria (Egypt) towards recommending tetanus toxoid vaccination to pregnant females.
The Consideration of Endometriosis in Women with Persistent Gastrointestinal Symptoms and a Novel Neuromusculoskeletal Treatment Approach
Endometriosis is a chronic, hormone-dependent, inflammatory disease, characterized by the presence and growth of endometrial tissue outside the uterine cavity and it is associated with chronic pelvic pain and infertility. Worldwide, approximately 176 million women between the ages of 15 and 49 are affected by endometriosis. Endometriosis is a complex disease that induces a chronic inflammatory process and can be challenging to treat. Chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS) is defined as pelvic pain lasting greater than three to six months that is not solely related to menstruation, sexual activity or bowel movements.
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