Volume 2 | Issue 2 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.33696/Gastroenterology.2.026
Pregnancy and Hepatitis B Immunization: A Commentary on Maternal Knowledge and Vertical Transmission Risks
- 1Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, Division of Gastroenterology
- 2John Cochran VA Medical Center, St. Louis MO, Division of Gastroenterology
Mauricio Lisker-Melman, Mauricio Lisker-Melmanac.za
Received Date: December 28, 2020
Accepted Date: February 26, 2021
Al-Obaid L, Roediger R, Lisker-Melman M. Pregnancy and Hepatitis B Immunization: A Commentary on Maternal Knowledge and Vertical Transmission Risks. Arch Gastroenterol Res. 2021; 2(2): 48-54.
Copyright: © 2021 Al-Obaid L, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Pregnancy; Hepatitis; Immunization; Maternal; Vertical Transmission
The hepatitis C virus (HCV) genome was isolated during the late 1980s using molecular cloning techniques. It is recognized as the cause of most cases of percutaneously transmitted non-A, non-B hepatitis. It is estimated, that up to 200 million people worldwide are infected with the hepatitis C virus (HCV), more than 3% of the world population.
Healthy Fetal Outcomes Using A Novel Treatment For Maternal Lyme Disease And Babesiosis During Consecutive Pregnancies: A Case Study and Literature Review
The genus Babesia comprises over 100 species of tick-transmitted protozoal intraerythrocytic pathogens (piroplasms) , causing malarial-type illness. The most common human pathogens in the United States are B. microti  and Babesia duncani (WA- 1) ; Less common species include Babesia MO-1  and KO-1 , as well as Babesia divergens and Babesia venatorum (EU-1) in Europe.
Fatty acid oxidation disorders unfortunately can result in the sudden unexplained death of infants. Mitochondrial trifunctional protein (MTP) deficiency is one such disease where long-chain fatty acids cannot be fully oxidized through beta-oxidation which, can lead to cardiac arrythmias in an infant.
Recommendation of Tetanus Toxoid Vaccination for Pregnant Females in a Country that Achieved Elimination of Maternal and Neonatal Tetanus. A commentary on the Study: Knowledge and Health Beliefs of Reproductive-age Women in Alexandria about Tetanus Toxoid Immunization
The study “knowledge and health beliefs of reproductive-age women in Alexandria about tetanus toxoid immunization” has shed a new light on the attitude of obstetricians in Alexandria (Egypt) towards recommending tetanus toxoid vaccination to pregnant females.
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) chronically infects more than 250 million individuals worldwide and is responsible for more than 800,000 deaths per year by promoting end-stage liver diseases, among which decompensated cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) (WHO, July 2020) are prominent. Studies performed in chimpanzees or in animalversion of HBV (woodchuck HBV: WHBV) highlighted the lack of immune responses against the virus upon primary infection. Thus, HBV has been described as a “stealth” virus (i.e. a virus that does not modify/induce immune response in the cell). However, a growing number of studies describe that HBV is able to rapidly and efficiently counteract the innate immune response in a large variety of cells (hepatocytes, macrophages, Natural Killer cell…). Hereby, we focus on the role of macrophages (Mφ) during HBV infection.