Volume 3, Issue 1, p1-67
Articles published in this issue are Open Access and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY NC) where the readers can reuse, download, distribute the article in whole or part by mentioning proper credits to the authors.
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which started in Wuhan in December 2019, is a pandemic caused by the newly emerged severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) (genus Betacoronavirus, family Coronaviridae).J Cell Immunol, 2021, Volume 3, Issue 1, p1-7 | DOI: 10.33696/immunology.3.069
Despite the variety of traditional methods available to treat cancer, such as surgical resection, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy, immunotherapy has emerged as an attractive alternative for cancer patients. Adoptive cell transfer (ACT) is a rapidly emerging immunotherapy approach, and a subcategory, genetically engineered T cells, which includes chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells and T cell receptor (TCR)-modified T cells, has shown promising clinical benefits in treating malignant tumors .J Cell Immunol, 2021, Volume 3, Issue 1, p8-11 | DOI: 10.33696/immunology.3.070
Bacille Calmette Guerin (BCG) vaccine has existence of more than 80 years with its widest use among all currently available vaccines . BCG vaccine developed from a virulent attenuated M. bovis strain against tuberculosis (TB) by deleting more than 14 different regions in the genome of Mycobacterium .J Cell Immunol, 2021, Volume 3, Issue 1, p12-19 | DOI: 10.33696/immunology.3.071
The Germ Theory of Disease was solidified in the 19th century by Louise Pasteur and Robert Koch. They systematically visualized, isolated, and quantified microscopic pathogens as causative agents of diseases and epidemics. Viruses are submicroscopic; therefore, they were discovered later as pathogens by indirect methods [1,2].J Cell Immunol, 2021, Volume 3, Issue 1, p20-25 | DOI: 10.33696/immunology.3.072
The Interplay between Transcription Factor SALL4 and Histone Modifiers in Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells
Currently, there is a growing need for culturing hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) ex vivo for various clinical applications such as HSPC transplantation and gene therapy. For many patients with hematologic, genetic, and immune diseases, HSPC transplants can be a life-saving treatment. There are over 20,000 patients in the US receiving HSPC transplantation yearly .J Cell Immunol, 2021, Volume 3, Issue 1, p26-30 | DOI: 10.33696/immunology.3.073
Until recently, oral glucocorticoid (GC) therapies were the mainstay of treatment for uncontrolled inflammatory disease across many body systems. The last 30 years, however, have witnessed a transformation in the management of many diseases due to the development of targeted biological agents leading to a reduction, albeit not a removal, of the dependence on oral GCs.J Cell Immunol, 2021, Volume 3, Issue 1, p31-35 | DOI: 10.33696/immunology.3.074
Cytokine receptors may possess an intrinsic capability for the transduction of signals upon engagement by the respective cytokine ligand . However, if they lack an own intracellular signaling entity, they rely on other signaling machineries. One of the key intracellular signaling molecules mediating cytokine effects on immune cells are Janus kinases (JAKs),J Cell Immunol, 2021, Volume 3, Issue 1, p36-41 | DOI: 10.33696/immunology.3.075
The maturation of the immune system is a complex process that undergoes major transitions during fetal and neonatal development . Throughout this developmental window, the response to liver injury is dependent on the nature and timing of the insult .J Cell Immunol, 2021, Volume 3, Issue 1, p42-45 | DOI: 10.33696/immunology.3.076
The insulin-like peptides family is composed of insulin, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1), and insulin-like growth factor (IGF2), together with IGF binding proteins (IGFBP1- IGFBP6) . IGF2 is a single-chain secreted protein of 67 amino acids with important functions in fetal growth and development. IGF2 is the less characterized member of this family, and in mice and rats its expression in the brain occurs during embryonic development and adulthood but declines during aging .J Cell Immunol, 2021, Volume 3, Issue 1, p46-52 | DOI: 10.33696/immunology.3.077
Type I interferons (IFNs) produced in response to infections with either bacterial, viral or fungal pathogens are critical to induce antimicrobial defenses in infected and adjacent cells to reduce the spread of microbes, initiate communication between innate and adaptive immunity, and to promote the survival of the host . Improper induction or regulation of type I IFN signaling can lead to chronic infection-induced inflammation-related diseases, including septic shock, autoimmune diseases, and inflammatory syndromes .J Cell Immunol, 2021, Volume 3, Issue 1, p53-60 | DOI: 10.33696/immunology.3.078
Teledermatology Before, During, and After COVID-19: A Vital Tool to Improve Access and Equity in Specialty Care
The COVID-19 pandemic has placed unprecedented strains on our medical system as specialties have had to reconsider “essential” in-person services and find novel ways to remotely ensure continuity of care. One such modality of care includes telehealth services, which have experienced a rapid rise in utility with a reported 4,347% increase in telehealth visits from March 2019 to March 2020 .J Cell Immunol, 2021, Volume 3, Issue 1, p61-67 | DOI: doi.org/10.33696/immunology.3.079
While the global COVID-19 pandemic has challenged the entire humanity and health systems, it also triggered researchers to urgently perform clinical trials to assess the safety and efficacy of many agents and modalities to combat COVID-19. As of April 22, over 650 clinical studies have been registered both in USA and internationally. Results from these studies are also coming at a brisk pace in this unprecedented emergency.
Ketamine has long been used in the field of anesthesia . Its rapid and long-acting analgesic effects associated with its dissociative properties have also established its use in prehospital and emergency department patients.
The currently ongoing coronavirus pandemic, the SARSCOV- 2, interchangeably referred to as the COVID-19 infection, has in a short span of time altered the ways and means of almost all of mankind. So strong has been its effect that all human activity ceased in one way or another for a considerable time, led to significant loss of life and economic drain of.
Five months into the COVID-19 pandemic, the U.S. death toll from the virus has now surpassed 100,000 people. Many more cases remain nationwide, while an unknown number of patients currently harbor the virus asymptomatically. While health officials are now optimistic regarding the decline in prevalence and number of deaths due to COVID-19 and the possibility of a vaccine by the fall, we cannot lose sight of the bigger picture: the next pandemic.
Rituximab is a chimeric (20% rodent and 80% human) monoclonal antibody that binds to the CD20 antigen present on the cell surface and leads to depletion of mature B-cells [1,2]. It is the first approved monoclonal antibody to be used in the therapy of indolent B-cell non- Hodgkin’s lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia
In the article, “Mental Health Framework: Coronavirus pandemic in post-Katrina New Orleans” , Shervington and Richardson offer recommendations about how to anticipate and address disaster-related, trauma exposures associated with the coronavirus pandemic
In January 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) classified COVID-19 to be a Public Health Emergency of International Concern and declared it a pandemic on March 11, 2020 . Over one hundred and eighty-five million people have been infected by SARS-CoV-2 and roughly four million have died worldwide so far
In silico Analysis for the Repurposing of Broad-spectrum Antiviral Drugs against Multiple Targets from SARS-CoV-2: A Molecular Docking and ADMET Approach
SARS-CoV-2 belongs to the genus Beta of the Coronaviridae family of enveloped single-stranded, positive-sense ribonucleic acid (RNA) with a genome length of 30,000bp. The virion is composed of various non-structural (RNA dependent RNA polymerase also known as RdRp) and structural proteins such as Spike (S), Nucleocapsid (N), Matrix (M), and Envelope (E) proteins.
When immune cells are activated, they undergo metabolic change in order to have sufficient energy to function effectively. The Krebs cycle is one of the most important pathways involved in this response and citrate, a critical component of this pathway, regulates carbohydrate and lipid metabolism.
The COVID-19 pandemic has provoked a global, rapid increase of cases due to the high infectivity of the etiological agent, COVID-19 virus. In February 2021, over 110 million confirmed COVID-19 cases with 1 million deaths were reported worldwide (www.who.int).
Primary Temporal Bone Meningioma Presenting as Chronic Mastoiditis and Sigmoid Sinus Thrombosis: Report of a Case with Literature Analysis
Meningiomas are common, primary brain tumors, accounting for up to 30% of intracranial neoplasms; they are usually slow-growing and benign . Primary extra cranial meningiomas are rare, and approximately 2% of meningiomas are located extra cranially . Furthermore, primary extra cranial meningiomas of the ear and temporal bone are exceedingly rare .
By deduction from complexity of (behavioral) models, we develop an entropic computational tool to distinguish erroneous/redundant eye movements from task relevant eye movements.
Dexamethasone: The First Drug to be Shown to Decrease Mortality in Critically Ill Patients with COVID-19
The precise role of corticosteroids for treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is unclear due to lack of randomized trials.
Since December 2019, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) caused by 2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) has resulted in 89,000 cases of Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), formerly known as Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia (NCP) in China, including 2,450 deaths.
No Studies in Stroke Regarding Brain fMRI Activity and Pelvic Floor Muscle Training/Activation - Only Studies in Non-stroke Population: A Review of Neuroimaging Studies
Neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction (NLUTD) is highly prevalent in poststroke patients, leading to major impact on the quality of life (QoL) and healthcare resources. Pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) has, over the past two decades, been recommended as first-line treatment for neurologically healthy patients with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS).
Design of a Peptide Against the Interaction Between Immune Response Protein TRAF5 and the Oncoprotein E6 from HPV
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the human papillomavirus (HPV) affects more than 600 million people worldwide, being the most common sexually transmitted disease (STD). There were over 250,000 deaths due to cervical cancer worldwide and most of them took place in developing countries (WHO). There are more than 80 HPV types and more than 40 infect the genital tract
Inflammation can be caused by various environmental factors, including microbial infection and toxic chemical exposure. In response to inflammation, immune cells like macrophages, B and T lymphocytes, fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and various stromal cells secrete soluble polypeptide cytokine Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha (TNF?)
COVID-19 is the new emerging viral infection that already cause global public health problem [1-3]. More than 220 countries/territories are already attacked and there are more than 17 million patients around the world
Bone mineral content and density (BMC, BMD) losses, which may subsequently lead to osteopenia and osteoporosis, appear in various disuse (aging, space flight and its analogs, spinal cord injury, etc.) conditions. While diet and hormonal status impact BMC and BMD values, a major factor responsible for these losses are the
This article is an extension to our recently published article in Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, entitled “Β-Sitosterol: Isolation from Muntingia Calabura Linn. Bark Extract, Structural Elucidation, and Molecular Docking Studies as Potential Inhibitor of SARSCoV-2 Mpro (COVID-19)”.
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