Volume 3, Issue 4, p201-295
Articles published in this issue are Open Access and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY NC) where the readers can reuse, download, distribute the article in whole or part by mentioning proper credits to the authors.
Efficacy of Therapeutic Plasma Exchange Alone or in Combination with Ruxolitinib for the Treatment of Penn Class 3 and 4 Cytokine Release Syndrome Complicating COVID-19
Observations early in the viral pandemic of 2020 noted the resemblance between severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection and the hypercytokinemic state of secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (sHLH).J Cell Immunol, 2021, Volume 3, Issue 4, p201-206 | DOI: 10.33696/immunology.3.100
MicroRNA (miRNAs) constitute a large family of highly conserved ~21-nucleotide-long small noncoding RNAs. In mammals it is calculated to control ~50% of proteincoding genes by regulation at the post-transcriptional level affecting mRNA degradation.J Cell Immunol, 2021, Volume 3, Issue 4, p207-214 | DOI: 10.33696/immunology.3.101
Environmental Enrichment and Its Benefits for Migraine: Dendritic Cell Extracellular Vesicles as an Effective Mimetic
Migraine is a common neurological disorder characterized by episodic intense and painful headaches that last between 4 and 72 hours. Typically, the headache is unilateral and pulsating, aggravated by physical activity, and often accompanied with nausea, dizziness, photophobia, hyperosmia, or phonophobia.J Cell Immunol, 2021, Volume 3, Issue 4, p215-225 | DOI: 10.33696/immunology.3.102
Back in 2017, I published a review on the immunotherapy options for dogs with cancer. Somewhat provocatively the paper was entitled: Immunotherapy for dogs: Running behind humans.J Cell Immunol, 2021, Volume 3, Issue 4, p226-233 | DOI: 10.33696/immunology.3.103
Body Mass Index and COVID-19: Likely Causes for Obesity and Undernutrition Correlation with Disease Severity
Coronaviruses are one of the viruses causing the common cold, a disease that has never had a cure nor any effective prevention. They form are a large family of enveloped, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA viruses that infect a broad range of vertebrates, and for which bats are believed to be an important reservoir.J Cell Immunol, 2021, Volume 3, Issue 4, p234-239 | DOI: 10.33696/immunology.3.104
Drug resistance of cancer patients toward chemotherapy remains a major problem in the clinic. Hence, understanding the intrinsic and acquired molecular mechanisms of drug resistance in cancer patients is paramount to identify relevant targets for therapeutic interventions that enhance chemotherapy response, and ultimately improve clinical outcome.J Cell Immunol, 2021, Volume 3, Issue 4, p240-245 | DOI: 10.33696/immunology.3.105
Cancer remains one of the leading causes of death worldwide despite a significant progress in cancer diagnostics, treatment and prophylactics during last decades. It is generally accepted that the development and progression of cancer are closely associated with dysregulated functioning and diminishing of local and systemic immune responsiveness.J Cell Immunol, 2021, Volume 3, Issue 4, p246-257 | DOI: 10.33696/immunology.3.106
COVID-19 patients can develop various central neurological disorders, including loss of smell and taste (anosmia and ageusia, respectively), ischemic injury (stroke), encephalopathy (delirium), and encephalitis, but also peripheral damages such as Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS).J Cell Immunol, 2021, Volume 3, Issue 4, p258-277 | DOI: 10.33696/immunology.3.107
Commentary on “A Vaccine for Photodynamic Immunogenic Cell Death: Tumor Cell Caged b y Cellular Disulfide–Thiol Exchange for Immunotherapy”
Tumor immunotherapy, including monoclonal antibody of immune checkpoint blockade, therapeutic antibody, cancer vaccine and cell therapy, etc., is to restart and maintain the tumor immune cycle, restore the normal antitumor immune response of the body, so as to control and eliminate the tumor.J Cell Immunol, 2021, Volume 3, Issue 4, p294-295 | DOI: 10.33696/immunology.3.109
It is now well accepted that the ionizing radiation-generated reactive oxygen species (ROS), that constitute ~2/3 of the effects of external beam radiation, do not only produce direct tumor cell death, but also affect the surrounding microenvironment. Moreover, this indirect effect of radiation may result in systemic effects, specifically the initiation of an inflammatory response.
While the global COVID-19 pandemic has challenged the entire humanity and health systems, it also triggered researchers to urgently perform clinical trials to assess the safety and efficacy of many agents and modalities to combat COVID-19. As of April 22, over 650 clinical studies have been registered both in USA and internationally. Results from these studies are also coming at a brisk pace in this unprecedented emergency.
Ketamine has long been used in the field of anesthesia . Its rapid and long-acting analgesic effects associated with its dissociative properties have also established its use in prehospital and emergency department patients.
The currently ongoing coronavirus pandemic, the SARSCOV- 2, interchangeably referred to as the COVID-19 infection, has in a short span of time altered the ways and means of almost all of mankind. So strong has been its effect that all human activity ceased in one way or another for a considerable time, led to significant loss of life and economic drain of.
Mega-Dose Dietary Riboflavin in Treatment in Keratoconus, Post-Refractive Cornea Ectasia and Migraine. Has Its Time Arrived?
Recently, several studies and investigators have shown the beneficial effects of high dose dietary riboflavin (vitamin B2) in the treatment of keratoconus, post-refractive (LASIK, PRK & Radial Keratotomy) ectasia (with sunlight exposure) and patients treated with our own protocol (NIH Clinical Study – www.clinicaltrials.gov - # NCT 03095235) discovered significant relief for intractable migraine headaches and/or ophthalmic migraine (classic migraine visual symptoms without headache).
Five months into the COVID-19 pandemic, the U.S. death toll from the virus has now surpassed 100,000 people. Many more cases remain nationwide, while an unknown number of patients currently harbor the virus asymptomatically. While health officials are now optimistic regarding the decline in prevalence and number of deaths due to COVID-19 and the possibility of a vaccine by the fall, we cannot lose sight of the bigger picture: the next pandemic.
Rituximab is a chimeric (20% rodent and 80% human) monoclonal antibody that binds to the CD20 antigen present on the cell surface and leads to depletion of mature B-cells [1,2]. It is the first approved monoclonal antibody to be used in the therapy of indolent B-cell non- Hodgkin’s lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia
In the article, “Mental Health Framework: Coronavirus pandemic in post-Katrina New Orleans” , Shervington and Richardson offer recommendations about how to anticipate and address disaster-related, trauma exposures associated with the coronavirus pandemic
In January 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) classified COVID-19 to be a Public Health Emergency of International Concern and declared it a pandemic on March 11, 2020 . Over one hundred and eighty-five million people have been infected by SARS-CoV-2 and roughly four million have died worldwide so far
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short double-stranded regulatory molecules derived from precursor transcripts called primary miRNAs (pri-miRNAs) and transcribing in the nucleus from chromosomal DNA by the RNA polymerase II. These pri-miRNAs were shown to contain internal imperfect hairpin structures which are processed by DCL (dicer-like) enzyme
Being a sophisticated and highly organized living system, mammals harbor a large number of biomolecular machineries which represent a dynamic and complex network of interconnections responsible for the effective operation, development and survivability of their body cells. Sphingolipids are a special class of lipids in eukaryotic cells, which have recently gained the attention of researchers because of their involvement in several fundamental processes of living cells, including proliferation
Elevated body mass index (BMI) has been associated with an increased risk of cancer and has been shown to have a negative impact on survival in patients with breast, prostate, oral cancer, and leukemia. In plasma cell dyscrasias, obesity has not only been shown to be a risk factor for the development of multiple myeloma, but also has been associated with a higher rate of progression from monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance (MGUS) to multiple myeloma, and if intervened on, has bee
The COVID-19 pandemic has provoked a global, rapid increase of cases due to the high infectivity of the etiological agent, COVID-19 virus. In February 2021, over 110 million confirmed COVID-19 cases with 1 million deaths were reported worldwide (www.who.int).
Worldwide, obesity is a public health concern and a metabolic ailment characterized by excessive adipose tissue accumulation resulting from an imbalance of energy expenditure and energy intake . This disorder is a known risk factor for cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and metabolic
Dexamethasone: The First Drug to be Shown to Decrease Mortality in Critically Ill Patients with COVID-19
The precise role of corticosteroids for treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is unclear due to lack of randomized trials.
Since December 2019, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) caused by 2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) has resulted in 89,000 cases of Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), formerly known as Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia (NCP) in China, including 2,450 deaths.
The recently published manuscript entitled “Epigenetically Altered T Cells Contribute to Lupus Flares” summarizes recent advances in our understanding of how the environment alters the immune system to cause flares of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in genetically predisposed people, and why it affects women approximately 9 times more often than men
Dendorbium Nobile Lindl. Alkaloids Suppress NF-κB and NLRP3 Signaling Pathways to Attenuate Lipopolysaccharide-induced Neuroinflammation
The important immune cells in the brain are called microglia acting as the central junction between neuroinflammation and neurodegenerative diseases. In patients of cognitive disorders and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) animal models, amoebic morphology and inflammatory pathways are activated to release numerous cells in the inflammatory factors by active microglia.
Obesity has reached a global epidemic and it predisposes to the development of insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and related metabolic diseases. Current interventions against obesity and/or type 2 diabetes such as calorie restriction, exercise, genetic manipulations or established pharmacological treatments have not been successful for many patients with obesity and/or type 2 diabetes.
COVID-19 is the new emerging viral infection that already cause global public health problem [1-3]. More than 220 countries/territories are already attacked and there are more than 17 million patients around the world
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