The expression of small non-coding RNA MicroRNAs (miRNAs) during respiratory viral infections is of critical importance as they are implicated in the viral replication, immune responses and severity of disease pathogenesis. Respiratory viral infections have an extensive impact on human health across the globe. For that is essential to understand the factors that regulate the host response against infections. The differential miRNA pattern induced by respiratory viruses has been reported, including include influenza A virus (IAV), human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV), human metapneumovirus (HMPV), adenovirus (AdV), and more recently, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. In this commentary, we highlight the importance of miRNAs identification and the contribution of these molecules in the modulation of the immune response through the upregulation and downregulation of miRNAs expression in different immune and non-immune cells.
Respiratory viruses, miRNAs, Respiratory tract, Non-coding RNAs, HMPV, RSV, HRSV