Volume 1, Issue 1, p1-32
Articles published in this issue are Open Access and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY NC) where the readers can reuse, download, distribute the article in whole or part by mentioning proper credits to the authors.
In this study, the safety and efficacy of liver biopsies performed by endoscopic ultrasound (EUS-LB) were compared with those performed via the traditional percutaneous route at our Medical Center between January 2018 and August 2019.J Exp Pathol, 2020, Volume 1, Issue 1, p1-10 | DOI: 10.33696/pathology.1.001
The immune system is essential to host defense because it senses attacking pathogens and elicits protective immune responses. Although immune responses can protect against pathogens, uncontrolled immune responses cause tissue damage and other pathological consequences through their inflammatory mediators.J Exp Pathol, 2020, Volume 1, Issue 1, p11-15 | DOI: 10.33696/pathology.1.002
Probiotics are generally defined as nonpathogenic living organisms that have beneficial effects on host health. The term “probiotic” means “for life” that is derived from Greek language. At first, probiotics was defined as substances that are produced with microorganisms and promote the other microorganisms.J Exp Pathol, 2020, Volume 1, Issue 1, p16-21 | DOI: 10.33696/pathology.1.003
A New Player in an Old Story: FBXO16 Prevents Breast Cancer Tumorigenesis through Disrupting Cellular Function of Nuclear β-Catenin
β-Catenin is the central modulator of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway. Upon Wnt on state, β-Catenin is translocated to the nucleus and function as a transcription coactivator for several oncogenes. In Wnt off state, β-catenin is mostly localized in the cytoplasm and sequestered by the destruction complex, the negative regulator of β-catenin expression [2,3].J Exp Pathol, 2020, Volume 1, Issue 1, p22-27 | DOI: 10.33696/pathology.1.004
Peripheral pancytopenia is not a disease by itself; rather it describes simultaneous presence of anemia, leucopenia and thrombocytopenia resulting from a number of disease processes.J Exp Pathol, 2020, Volume 1, Issue 1, p28-32 | DOI: 10.33696/pathology.1.005
The nature of gene mutations induced by ionizing radiation in germ cells and transmitted to offspring remains one of the most important problems in radiation genetics of higher eukaryotes. The data accumulated in this field were obtained by different authors under different experimental conditions which does not give a complete insight about the nature of radiation-induced inherited mutations at different genome levels (chromosome, gene, DNA).
NOBOX is an ovarian specific transcription factor that plays an important role in follicular growth and survival. Nineteen NOBOX variants have been previously associated with premature ovarian insufficiency (POI). Disease severity in patients with heterozygous and homozygous mutations largely overlap however, hampering genotype-phenotype correlations. We recently reported the first case of biallelic truncating mutations (NM_001080413.3 (NOBOX):c.826C>T, p.(Arg276*) and NM_001080413.3(NOBOX):c.1421del, p.(Gly474Alafs*76)) of NOBOX in two Belgian sisters with POI.
Uniportal VATS Lobectomy for Lung Cancer: Feasibility and Cost Effectiveness in a Single Center Experience
In last decades, video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) together with robotic-assisted thoracic surgery (RATS) can be considered the biggest innovation in thoracic surgery. This approach drastically changed the way of performing surgical operations, improving patient’s outcome undergoing thoracic surgery.
Spontaneous Resolution of Infected Pancreatic Necrosis after Fistulization into Upper Gastrointestinal Tract
A 67-year-old female with a history of arterial hypertension and previous hysterectomy, was recovered, in July 2019, for moderately-severe acute biliary pancreatitis with evidence of stones in gallbladder and bile duct and pancreatic necrosis on imaging (Magnetic Resonance Cholangiopancreatography. A contrast enhanced CT, a week after the admission, showed necrotic areas in the pancreas and a large peripancreatic fluid collection (60 mm long) with air pockets within (acute necrotic collection, with signs of infection. Since she was haemodynamically stable and there was no evidence of organ failure, according to “step-up approach”, she was managed medically with antibiotics (piperacillin-tazobactam + metronidazole) and fluids.
In January 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) classified COVID-19 to be a Public Health Emergency of International Concern and declared it a pandemic on March 11, 2020 . Over one hundred and eighty-five million people have been infected by SARS-CoV-2 and roughly four million have died worldwide so far
Acanthamoeba was first described by Castellani and represents single-cell eukaryotes existing as either cellular trophozoites (25–40 ?m) or under adverse conditions (desiccation, lack of food, and extreme pH or temperature fluctuations), as dormant cysts (13–20 ?m). The cysts are known to be resistant to antibiotics, the effects of chlorine, and very low temperatures, and have been shown to maintain viability for over 20 years.
Liver fibrosis is a reversible wound-healing response in which a variety of cells and factors are involved in and results in excessive deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM). Cirrhosis is one of the significant causes of portal hypertension and end-stage liver disease, and it is the 14th most common cause of death around the world. Approximately 1.03 million people worldwide die from liver cirrhosis every year.
The use of molecular and genomic analysis of a cancer as a means to define a patient-specific treatment is interchangeably referred to as Precision Medicine, Personalized Medicine, or Genomically-directed medicine (herein, collectively PMED).
Breast cancer is the second most common cancer worldwide, affecting nearly one in eight women. Accurate cancer staging is essential for determining the patient’s prognosis and for choosing the appropriate treatment.
Voltage-gated Kv1.3 potassium channels control the membrane potential, cellular activation and cell death. Kv1.3 channels have been extensively studied in autoimmune disorders and are promising drug targets for the treatment of solid cancer.
When immune cells are activated, they undergo metabolic change in order to have sufficient energy to function effectively. The Krebs cycle is one of the most important pathways involved in this response and citrate, a critical component of this pathway, regulates carbohydrate and lipid metabolism.
Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer related death in the United States with mortality rates surpassing breast, prostate, brain, and colorectal cancers combined. Recent data shows that susceptibility for both men and women for developing invasive lung and bronchogenic carcinoma peak after the age of 70 years.
Liver biopsy continues to be the gold-standard with regards to diagnosis and staging of the majority of liver diseases. Serologic markers certainly have helped in diagnosing various autoimmune and viral-related liver diseases. Furthermore, laboratory testing and imaging studies such as liver elastography have allowed us to non-invasively assess fibrosis. Unfortunately, there are shortcomings with these forms of testing. False positives or laboratory errors will lead to misleading diagnoses. Situations can also arise during which there are diagnostic dilemmas, such as an obese patient with positive autoimmune serology and elevated liver chemistries.
Dendorbium Nobile Lindl. Alkaloids Suppress NF-κB and NLRP3 Signaling Pathways to Attenuate Lipopolysaccharide-induced Neuroinflammation
The important immune cells in the brain are called microglia acting as the central junction between neuroinflammation and neurodegenerative diseases. In patients of cognitive disorders and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) animal models, amoebic morphology and inflammatory pathways are activated to release numerous cells in the inflammatory factors by active microglia.
Inflammation can be caused by various environmental factors, including microbial infection and toxic chemical exposure. In response to inflammation, immune cells like macrophages, B and T lymphocytes, fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and various stromal cells secrete soluble polypeptide cytokine Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha (TNF?)
Cancer nanomedicine was originally developed for more efficient delivery of chemotherapeutic agents into tumor, and has been extensively employed as a therapeutic for cancer treatment owing to its unique features in drug delivery, diagnosis and imaging, as well as the therapeutic nature of some nanomaterials themselves.
In pharmacologic doses niacin (nicotinic acid) has been used clinically for over six decades for atherogenic dyslipidemia and reduction of cardiovascular event risk. In combination with statin therapy, it effects regression of coronary atherosclerosis. Emerging evidence indicates a new potential use for niacin for the treatment of NAFLD and its complications. Despite this enormous amount of data on niacin, there is confusion and misconceptions about its use of a drug rather than as a vitamin, its formulations, and how it can be used in clinical practice. The purpose of this invited brief communication is to update and summarize this emerging evidence. We comment on how it may be valuable in the context of other drugs-in-development for NAFLD, especially for combination therapy for synergistic efficacy.
The Role of Anemia in Term and Preterm Pregnancies: Evidence from the Brazilian Multicenter Study on Preterm Birth (EMIP)
Evaluate the prevalence of anemia in term and preterm pregnancies and compare maternal and perinatal outcomes among groups.
Platelets are small anuclear cells shed from the megakaryocyte, at a rate of ~1011/day , maintaining a blood concentration of 100-450 x 109/L in healthy adults. As the second most abundant circulating cells, they are becoming increasingly recognized for their versatility and cross-talks in cancer, development, immunology among others.
Each cell in the body contains hundreds of mitochondria; each mitochondrion contains several DNA molecules, each carrying 37 genes that participate in the production of energy.
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