Volume 3, Issue 2, p29-64
Articles published in this issue are Open Access and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY NC) where the readers can reuse, download, distribute the article in whole or part by mentioning proper credits to the authors.
Evaluation of the Relationship between Capillaroscopic Symptoms and the Severity of Systemic Lupus Erythematous
Systemic lupus erythematous (SLE) is one of the most common rheumatic diseases with a global incidence of 50 to 70 cases per million people and the prevalence of 500 cases per one million people resulted in significant functional disabilities in 6.2% of cases .J Exp Pathol, 2022, Volume 3, Issue 2, p29-34 | DOI: 10.33696/pathology.3.037
Non-Interventional Treatment of Post-Dural-Puncture Headache; High-Flow Oxygen and Pro-Serotonin Agents a Safe and Effective Alternative
Lumbar punctures are commonly performed for diagnostic and/or therapeutic purposes by threading a needle through the outermost layer of the meninges, the dura mater, and into the intrathecal space within the lumbar region of the spine . The intrathecal space contains cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), a clear and colorless fluid, which surrounds the brain and spinal cord and can provide information regarding intracranial pressures, presence of diseases involving the central nervous system (CNS) or surrounding meninges [2-4]. A common complication of dural puncture is a postdural puncture headache (PDPH) which is defined by The International Headache Society as a “headache that develops within 5 days of dural puncture and resolves within 1 week spontaneously or within 48 hours after effective treatment of the spinal fluid leak”J Exp Pathol, 2022, Volume 3, Issue 2, p35-39 | DOI: 10.33696/pathology.3.038
Differential Expression of Long Non-coding Ribonucleic Acid (RNA) Genes in Endometriosis-associated Ovarian Cancer (EAOC): A Pilot Meta-analysis for Pathological Insights and Potential Diagnostic Biomarker Identification
Ovarian cancer affects 15 women per 100,000 in Europe  but it is not one disease. Epithelial malignancy the most common type of ovarian malignancy and defines the groups termed carcinoma [2,3]. Other malignant subtypes include sarcomas, germ cell tumors and sex-cord stromal tumors . Ovarian carcinomas are subdivided based on histological features, the most common being high-grade serous carcinoma which makes up around 70% of ovarian carcinomas [2,4]. Up to 10% of ovarian carcinomas are endometrioid subtype, having phenotypic and molecular resemblances to endometroid adenocarcinomas that arise in the endometrial cavity [3,5] Clear cell carcinoma (OCCC) and endometrioid carcinoma of the ovary (EnOC) occur on a background of ovarian endometriosis in as many as 70% of cases [6,7]. OCCC is equally as common as endometroid type, perhaps reflecting this shared origin and collectively are often referred to as Endometriosis-Associated Ovarian Carcinomas (EAOCs). Mucinous carcinoma is less common than endometriosisrelated carcinomas at around 3% of ovarian carcinomas .J Exp Pathol, 2022, Volume 3, Issue 2, p40-54 | DOI: 10.33696/pathology.3.039
The Duration of Mechanical Ventilation is the Main Cause of Bacterial/Fungal Superinfection in Critically Ill Patients with COVID-19 at Altitude
The COVID-19 pandemic is associated with a large number of patients spending long periods of time in intensive care units (ICUs), many of them suffering bacterial/fungal superinfections. However, both the incidence and cause of bacterial/fungal superinfections in COVID-19 critically ill patients remain poorly investigated in hospitals located at high altitudes (above 2500 meters).J Exp Pathol, 2022, Volume 3, Issue 2, p55-64 | DOI: 10.33696/pathology.3.040
Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Liver Biopsy; the Pathologist’s Perspective
In this study, the safety and efficacy of liver biopsies performed by endoscopic ultrasound (EUS-LB) were compared with those performed via the traditional percutaneous route at our Medical Center between January 2018 and August 2019.
Arid5a Inroads to Immunity, Inflammation, and Cancer
The immune system is essential to host defense because it senses attacking pathogens and elicits protective immune responses. Although immune responses can protect against pathogens, uncontrolled immune responses cause tissue damage and other pathological consequences through their inflammatory mediators.
Application of Encapsulated Probiotics in Health Care
Probiotics are generally defined as nonpathogenic living organisms that have beneficial effects on host health. The term “probiotic” means “for life” that is derived from Greek language. At first, probiotics was defined as substances that are produced with microorganisms and promote the other microorganisms.
A New Player in an Old Story: FBXO16 Prevents Breast Cancer Tumorigenesis through Disrupting Cellular Function of Nuclear β-Catenin
β-Catenin is the central modulator of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway. Upon Wnt on state, β-Catenin is translocated to the nucleus and function as a transcription coactivator for several oncogenes. In Wnt off state, β-catenin is mostly localized in the cytoplasm and sequestered by the destruction complex, the negative regulator of β-catenin expression [2,3].
Pancytopenia: An Update
Peripheral pancytopenia is not a disease by itself; rather it describes simultaneous presence of anemia, leucopenia and thrombocytopenia resulting from a number of disease processes.
The Clinicopathological and Genetic Characteristics of High-grade Gliomas with Histone H3.3 G34 Mutation in Teenagers and Young adults
Chromatin is composed of nucleosomes, with each nucleosome consisting of an octamer of two copies each of histones H3, H4, H2A, and H2B. Chromatin is critical for the control of transcription, replication, DNA repair and other aspects of genomic stability.
Liposarcoma of Laryngeal Vallecula
Liposarcoma (LS) is the most common soft tissue sarcoma (20% of the tumors in adults). This neoplasm was first described by Virchow in 1857 and has been well documented thereafter. Liposarcoma is a common soft tissue malignant tumor and is often found in the lower extremities and retro peritoneum. Only about 5.6% of liposarcomas are found in the head and neck and most of these tumors arise from the soft tissues of the neck [1-3].
Acellular Dermal Matrix in Prosthetic Breast Reconstructive Surgery with Prepectoral Technique: A Literature Review
Breast cancer is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer worldwide, with an incidence of 2.088.850 and a mortality rate of 627,000. Incidence and mortality rate in Europe were 522,513 and 92,000, respectively, while in Italy accounted for 53,000 diagnoses and 12,000 deaths.
Succinate Accumulation Links Mitochondrial MnSOD Depletion to Aberrant Nuclear DNA Methylation and Altered Cell Fate
Epigenetic processes provide a mechanism for integrating metabolic inputs and translating them into various phenotypic outputs [1,2]. Indeed, epigenetic modifiers often require or are inhibited by key citric acid cycle (CAC) metabolites (e.g. succinate,
Mechanistic and Translational Advances Using iPSC-Derived Blood Cells
The human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology was developed more than ten years ago and has provided important tools for the mechanistic and cellular interrogation of many diseases . To generate iPSC lines, somatic cells are reprogrammed into cells resembling embryonic stem cells by the overexpression of key transcription factors.
Antifungal Effects of PC945, a Novel Inhaled Triazole, on Candida albicans Pulmonary Infection in Immunocompromised Mice
Candida spp. are often detected from fungal cultures or mycobiome analysis of respiratory secretions, but are not usually treated since, even if detected persistently, the presence is assumed to be benign colonization unless invasive candidiasis in deeply immunocompromised subjects is suspected.
Impact on Microbiology Laboratory Turnaround Times Following Process Improvements and Total Laboratory Automation
Total laboratory automation (TLA) involves the integration of pre- and post-analytical processes through incorporation of multiple, modular systems to perform different tests, on diverse matrices, within the clinical microbiology laboratory, and typically consists of automation for plating, incubation,
Epidemiologic, Clinical, and Biological Characteristics of Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma in Martinique (1983- 2013)
Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) was first described in the Southwest islands of Japan in 1977 . Then, the HTLV-1 (human T-lymphotropic virustype 1) was isolated in the United States in 1981 in two patients, one with mycosis fungoïdes and the other with Sezary syndrome [2,3], which have been consequently renamed.
Adenosarcoma of Uterus with Sarcomatous Overgrowth and Rhabdomyoblastic Differentiation - A Rare Pathological Entity
Uterine adenosarcoma is a rare malignancy. It is defined as a biphasic tumor composed of both sarcomatous stroma and benign epithelial components. When the sarcomatous component occupies more than 25 % of the tumor then it is referred to as the sarcomatous overgrowth which accounts to about 10% of uterine adenosarcoma cases .
News About the Extracellular Vesicles from Mesenchymal Stem Cells: Functions, Therapy and Protection from COVID-19
The present Commentary is a critical follow-up of a previous review about “Extracellular vesicles, news about their role in immune cells: physiology, pathology and diseases”, appeared in Clinical and Experimental Immunology last June 2019 .
The Silencing of Casein Kinase I Attenuated Neuromuscular Impairment in a Preclinical Mouse Model of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal progressive neurodegenerative disease, which results in the destruction of upper and/or lower motor neurons in the brain and spinal cord. It usually affects people between 40 and 60-year-old and the average survival from onset to death is 3–4 years .
Verruciform Xanthoma of the Tongue: Case Report and Review of Literature
Verruciform xanthoma is an uncommon benign mucocutaneous lesion that has a verruciform (wart-like) appearance. It was first described by Shafer in the year 1971 affecting the oral mucosa. The most common site for verruciform xanthoma is the oral mucosa of the gingiva and alveolar mucosa. Extraoral verruciform xanthoma is extremely uncommon.
Identification of Laryngotracheal Stenosis During Weaning from Tracheostomy – A Clinical Conundrum
Tracheostomy insertion is a common procedure used to support weaning from mechanical ventilation or following head and neck surgery. Resolution of the clinical need for tracheostomy is followed by a process of tracheostomy weaning and subsequent decannulation.
Can Early Home administration of Azithromycin with Zinc Help Prevent Severe COVID-19 Disease Progression and Long-COVID?
The novel SARS-CoV-2 belongs to the Betacoronavirus family and contains a single-stranded positive-sense RNA genome. Similar to the two other coronaviruses, SARSCoV- 1 and MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2 is also likely to have originated in bats, which serve as established reservoirs for various pathogenic coronaviruses . Although it is still unconfirmed, the most commonly admitted hypothesis suggests that SARS-CoV-2 is transmitted from bats to humans via an unidentified intermediate host species (zoonotic transmission).
Faecal Microbiota Transplantation as Primary Treatment for Clostridioidoes difficile Infection-evidence for Change
Clostridioides difficile is an anaerobic spore-forming gram positive bacillus that infects the gut microbiota leading to gastrointestinal disease with varied severities ranging from self-limiting diarrhea to life-threatening pseudomembranous colitis,