Volume 5, Issue 2, p22-56
Articles published in this issue are Open Access and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY NC) where the readers can reuse, download, distribute the article in whole or part by mentioning proper credits to the authors.
Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms (AAA) remain a clinically devastating disease with no effective medical treatment therapy. AAAs are characterized by immune cell infiltration, smooth muscle cell apoptosis, and extracellular matrix degradation. Interleukin-1 (IL-1) has been shown to play role in AAA associated inflammation through immune cell recruitment and activation,J Cell Immunol, 2023, Volume 5, Issue 2, p22-31 | DOI: 10.33696/immunology.5.163
The course of the COVID-19 pandemic has led to high mortality rates worldwide, which justifies the development of various research studies aimed at elucidating the physiopathological mechanisms involved in the development of lung injury associated with this disease. The angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptorJ Cell Immunol, 2023, Volume 5, Issue 2, p32-35 | DOI: 10.33696/immunology.5.165
Exploring the Potential of Probiotics in Boosting the Immune System's Response to Reduce the Severity of Malaria
Malaria, caused by various strains of malaria parasites such as Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium ovale, Plasmodium malariae, and Plasmodium knowlesi, is a major threat to human health worldwide. It is estimated that around 3.3 billion people are at risk of developing this disease . Recent research on the human microbiome has revealed a link between resident microbial communities and the risk of blood parasites, offering potential for microbialbased disease treatments such as probiotics .J Cell Immunol, 2023, Volume 5, Issue 2, p36-40 | DOI: 10.33696/immunology.5.166
Sharing Weal and Woe: A Commentary on “Gasdermin E Regulates the Stability and Activation of EGFR in Human Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells”
Abnormal activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) promotes the development of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells (NSCLC). Chemoresistance to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), which is elicited by EGFR mutations, is a key challenge for NSCLC treatment. In the present study, we demonstrate a critical role of gasdermin E (GSDME), an important protein for pyroptosis, in the maintenance of EGFR stability and activation.J Cell Immunol, 2023, Volume 5, Issue 2, p41-44 | DOI: 10.33696/immunology.5.167
Dysregulated CXCL12 Expression in Osteoblasts Promotes B-lymphocytes Preferentially Homing to the Bone Marrow in MRL/lpr Mice
Peripheral circulating B-lymphocytes and B-lymphocytes in the bone marrow (BM) show different responses to lymphotoxic or immunosuppressive agents. We explored the existence of a dysregulated distribution of B-lymphocytes between peripheral and BM compartments and the underlying mechanisms. The percentage of CXC chemokine receptor 4+ B (CXCR4+ B) cells was decreased in the peripheral blood (PB) and increased in the BM of MRL/lpr mice and SLE patients.J Cell Immunol, 2023, Volume 5, Issue 2, p45-56 | DOI: 10.33696/immunology.5.168
Cyclic Nucleotide Signaling Pathways in Apicomplexan Parasites Provide a Valuable Source for Novel Drug Targets
Malaria is one of the most important disabling human, tropical disease caused by different Plasmodium species, which are protozoan parasites belonging to the Apicomplexa. The Apicomplexan parasites have a plastid like structure the “apicoplast” and comprise the genera Plasmodium, Toxoplasma and Cryptosporidium causing malaria, toxoplasmosis, and cryptosporidiosis.
While the global COVID-19 pandemic has challenged the entire humanity and health systems, it also triggered researchers to urgently perform clinical trials to assess the safety and efficacy of many agents and modalities to combat COVID-19. As of April 22, over 650 clinical studies have been registered both in USA and internationally. Results from these studies are also coming at a brisk pace in this unprecedented emergency.
The gut microbiome or gut flora is a vast community of microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, protozoa, and fungi that inhabit the digestive tract of the human and other animals [1,2]. In the human body, bacterial species colonize into the oral cavity, skin, vagina, and placenta, however, the largest population of microorganisms resides in the intestine.
In silico Analysis for the Repurposing of Broad-spectrum Antiviral Drugs against Multiple Targets from SARS-CoV-2: A Molecular Docking and ADMET Approach
SARS-CoV-2 belongs to the genus Beta of the Coronaviridae family of enveloped single-stranded, positive-sense ribonucleic acid (RNA) with a genome length of 30,000bp. The virion is composed of various non-structural (RNA dependent RNA polymerase also known as RdRp) and structural proteins such as Spike (S), Nucleocapsid (N), Matrix (M), and Envelope (E) proteins.
This article is an extension to our recently published article in Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, entitled “Β-Sitosterol: Isolation from Muntingia Calabura Linn. Bark Extract, Structural Elucidation, and Molecular Docking Studies as Potential Inhibitor of SARSCoV-2 Mpro (COVID-19)”.
Rapid Inactivation of SARS-CoV-2 by Coupling Tungsten Trioxide (WO3) Photocatalyst with Copper Nanoclusters
At the end of 2019, a novel severe respiratory disease (coronavirus disease 2019, COVID-19) spread to Wuhan, China, it became pandemic in few months, with more than 41 million people infected worldwide as of October 2020. COVID-19 is caused by a novel virus called severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) CoV-2 to distinguish it from SARS-CoV that emerged in Guangdong province in China in 2003 and caused the severe clinical condition known as SARS. Like SARS-CoV, SARS- CoV-2 causes a severe inter
Quantifying Respiratory Airborne Particle Dispersion Control Through Improvised Reusable Masks: The Physics of Non-Pharmaceutical Interventions for Reducing SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Airborne Transmission
In light of the current pandemic from rapid transmission of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2 or COVID-19) and significant morbidity, there has been inconsistent medical guidance given to the public regarding the wearing of non-medical improvised fabric masks or face coverings to reduce the transmission of COVID-19.
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARSCoV- 2) is a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA with genome size 26.2, and 31.7 kb coronavirus, covered by an enveloped structure, which is a major source of disaster in the 21st century. A typical CoV contains at least six ORFs in its genome. SARS-CoV-2 is the seventh coronavirus that is known to cause human disease.
Since the declaration of COVID-19 as a pandemic in March 2020 , there have been more than 100 million reported cases of COVID-19 worldwide and more than 2.1 million deaths .
COVID-19 and the Health of Illicit Substance Users: Preliminary Analysis from Illicit Drug Transaction Data
While much attention has been given to how COVID-19 patients are treated (or fail to be treated), the impact of the pandemic on illicit drug users remains largely undiscussed
COVID-19 Rapid Diagnostic Test Results and their Associations with Certain Factors Among the Residents of Balochistan
This paper analyses any possible association of various factors like gender, last COVID-19 PCR test results, BCG Vaccination, Seasonal Flu vaccination, occupation and confirmed case contact history with COVID-19 RDT results of the participants.
Inhaled budesonide benefits patients with COVID-19. ProLung™-budesonide enables the sustained, low dose administration of budesonide within a delivery vehicle similar to lung surfactant.
TLR4, as an on-membrane receptor of LPS, plays a crucial part in the process of sepsis, and EGFR phosphorylation promotes cell inflammation in response to LPS, which plays an indispensable role in modulating LPS/TLR4 signaling pathway. However, the mechanism of interaction between TLR4 and EGFR signaling is still unclear.
The COVID-19 pandemic started at the end of 2019 and remains carrying a health threat and significant economic consequences. Over the last two years, COVID-19 has been the main Public Health issue, and has impacted regular healthcare systems, with significant build-up of waiting lists and delay in optimum management of other serious medical conditions including heart diseases and cancer.
Photodynamic Therapy for the Prevention of SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Dental Office: Could be Possible?
In January 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) identified a novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 in the Wuhan province of China, which has since caused a worldwide pandemic, with more than 21.2 million confirmed cases and over 760,200 confirmed deaths as of 14 August 2020. SARS-CoV-2 is a single-stranded RNA virus classified in
Isolated Kidney Infarct and Lupus Anticoagulant Positivity in a Young Patient with Mild SARS-CoV-2 Infection
The incidence of thromboembolic events in COVID-19 is reportedly higher in intensive care unit (ICU) patients (29.4%) as compared to non-ICU patients (11.5%), while data on thromboembolic events in non-hospitalized, self-limiting COVID-19 is unavailable. Renal infarction with COVID-19 has only been reported in three patients who had severe infection, multiple comorbidities, and/or immuno-compromised state post kidney transplantation. Since the onset of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, guidelines for the prophylaxis and treatment of COVID- 19-related hypercoagulability have only been focused on hospitalized patients. Concurrently, risk factors and management guidelines for thromboembolic events in mild COVID-19 have remained unidentified. In this report, we describe a case of a 38-year-old male–with no medical history pertinent to hypercoagulability–who developed an isolated renal infarction one week after being diagnosed with mild COVID-19.
Lipases, esterases and proteases constitute superfamilies of hydrolases not only play an important role in the immune system, but also as catalysts in biotechnology and organic chemistry. Mechanistically, they all involve a similar catalytic triad.
Cytokines (IL-1 β, IL-6, IL-18, TNF-α) in Blood and Cerebrospinal Fluid in Neonatal Hypoxia/Ischemia)
Perinatal brain injury is an important clinical and socioeconomic entity. It is a syndrome of impaired brain function in the early days of life, and it is a consequence of inadequate brain oxygenation before, during or shortly after birth, with high mortality rates and early and late morbidity rates.
The Mammalian Gut Microbiome, Immune Responses and Disease: From Observational to Causal Relationships
The mammalian gut is the largest organ of adaptive immune responses with a total surface area of 300 m2 of the gut epithelium. The intestinal mucosa contains at least 80% of the body’s activated B cells.
Anti-tumor Mechanisms of Short-chain Fatty Acids, and the Relationship between the Gut Microbiome, Carcinogenesis, Tumor Growth, and Proliferation in Colorectal Carcinoma
We reviewed the anti-tumor mechanisms of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) as well as the relationship between the gut microbiome and the pathology of colorectal carcinoma (CRC). According to our in silico analysis of human CRC cell lines, it was shown that SCFAs suppress various genes and transcription factors that participate in tumor growth/proliferation and cell turnover, and butyric acid displayed the strongest inhibitory effects among SCFAs.
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