Volume 2, Issue 2, p30-67
Articles published in this issue are Open Access and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY NC) where the readers can reuse, download, distribute the article in whole or part by mentioning proper credits to the authors.
Identification of Risk Markers for Poorly Controlled Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Retrospective Cross-Sectional Study with Focus on Quality Assurance Based on Real World Data
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a metabolic disease defined by hyperglycemia. If not treated, chronic and even short periods (i.e. weeks) of undesirable hyperglycemia increases the risk for developing diabetic microvascular complications such as retinopathy, neuropathy, nephropathy, foot ulcers and amputations, and macrovascular complications such as cardiovascular disease including strokeJ Diabetes Clin Res, 2020, Volume 2, Issue 2, p30-36 | DOI: 10.33696/diabetes.1.016
The presentation of thyroid disease is on a spectrum with clinical presentations and disease severity ranging from subclinical to critical. The principal function of the thyroid gland is to produce T3 (triiodothyronine) and T4 (thyroxine). The hypothalamus and pituitary glands release thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) respectively, and this stimulates the release of T3 and T4 directly from the thyroid gland.J Diabetes Clin Res, 2020, Volume 2, Issue 2, p37-44 | DOI: 10.33696/diabetes.1.017
Neuromotor Impairment, Hearing Loss and Blindness in a Preclinical Mouse Model of Charcot Marie-Tooth Disorder
In the peripheral nervous system (PNS), Schwann cells (SCs) are responsible for myelin production, which contributes to axonal protection and allows for efficient action potential transmission. Unfortunately, acquired and hereditary demyelinating diseases of the PNS are numerous and affect an increasing number of people.J Diabetes Clin Res, 2020, Volume 2, Issue 2, p45-53 | DOI: 10.33696/diabetes.1.018
The prevalence of diabetes in COVID-19 patients ranges from 5.3% to 58% representing the second comorbidity after hypertension. However, when adjusted for age, diabetes prevalence among COVID-19 patients is similar to its prevalence in the general population.J Diabetes Clin Res, 2020, Volume 2, Issue 2, p54-58 | DOI: 10.33696/diabetes.1.019
Resveratrol Treatment Reduces Neuromotor Impairment and Hearing Loss in a Mouse Model of Diabetic Neuropathy and Nerve Injury
In the peripheral nervous system (PNS), Schwann cells (SCs) are responsible for myelin production, which contributes to axonal protection and allows for efficient action potential transmission. Unfortunately, acquired and hereditary demyelinating diseases of the PNS are numerous and affect an increasing number of people.J Diabetes Clin Res, 2020, Volume 2, Issue 2, p59-67 | DOI: 10.33696/diabetes.1.020
While the global COVID-19 pandemic has challenged the entire humanity and health systems, it also triggered researchers to urgently perform clinical trials to assess the safety and efficacy of many agents and modalities to combat COVID-19. As of April 22, over 650 clinical studies have been registered both in USA and internationally. Results from these studies are also coming at a brisk pace in this unprecedented emergency.
Prospective Evaluation of Effect of Metformin on Activation of AMP-activated Protein Kinase (AMPK) and Disease Control in a Sub-group Analysis of Patients with GI Malignancies
Observational studies have demonstrated association of metformin with reduced cancer incidence and mortality in multiple cancer types, including gastrointestinal (GI) malignancies. Anti-neoplastic effects of metformin are believed through many mechanisms including activation of AMP-activated protein kinase, which controls mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) growth regulatory pathway.
Influence of Clinical Risk Factors on Outcomes in Men with Stage I Non-Seminomatous Germ Cell Tumor Undergoing Robot-Assisted Retroperitoneal Lymph Node Dissection
Retroperitoneal lymph nodes are often the first landing site of metastatic disease in men with testicular cancer. Primary retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND) for clinical stage I NSGCT can accurately surgically stage patients who may have nodal micrometastases, and in some cases, can serve as the primary therapy when volume of metastasis is low.
Wound healing is a dynamic process whereby cellular structures and the tissue layers are reconstructed. Adult wound healing can be categorized into three stages: inflammatory phase, proliferative phase, and remodelling phase. Blood cells like macrophages, neutrophils, extracellular matrix and mediators, various proteins, and various genes play an important role in these phases.
However, the entire coagulation cascade is dysfunctional, in progressed chronic diabetes and cancer patients.
Gastric cancer (GC), also known as stomach cancer, is a worldwide health problem. Anatomically, it can occur from the gastroesophageal junction to distal portions of the stomach. Considering both sexes, worldwide, it is the 5th most common neoplasm (5.7%) and the 3rd cause of mortality among malignancies, leading to approximately 782,000 deaths in 2018. The incidence varies geographically but 50% of new cases are diagnosed in developed countries. High incidence is observed in Asia, Latin America, and in the central and eastern parts of Europe. There are several ways to classify GC, but the most used is Lauren’s Classification, which proposes two main histological groups: intestinal and diffuse. This classification is important because there are marked etiological, pathological, and epidemiological differences between the subgroups, guiding the clinical approach for each patient.
How Traditional Healers Diagnose and Treat Diabetes Mellitus in the Pretoria Mamelodi Area and How Do These Purported Medications Comply with Complementary and Alternative Medicine Regulations
CAM is widely used by patients to treat and prevent certain diseases, providing emotional and physical support . The National Centre for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) defines CAM as a “group of diverse medical and health care systems, practices, and products that are not presently considered to be part of conventional medicine” .
Insulin resistance has been studied extensively at systemic, organ, tissue and cellular and molecular levels. Overnutrition plays an essential role in the development of chronic metabolic diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. For subjects without genetic defects, the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes is a graduate process. How the transition from an insulinsensitive state to an insulin-resistant state occurs, and what the roles of nutrients are in the process have not been fully understood. Here, we try to summarize the current understanding of insulin-regulate gene expression in the liver, and describe a phenomenon of hepatic insulin resistance at gene expression (HIRAGE), which may be linked to overnutrition.
Obesity has reached a global epidemic and it predisposes to the development of insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and related metabolic diseases. Current interventions against obesity and/or type 2 diabetes such as calorie restriction, exercise, genetic manipulations or established pharmacological treatments have not been successful for many patients with obesity and/or type 2 diabetes.
Prevalence of diabetes is increasing. Diabetes is more prevalent in the socially deprived, ethnic minority population (based on continuing rise in elderly population, growing obesity and BME groups). Compliance is a major stumbling block in the management of most long-term conditions including diabetes.
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is an age-related metabolic disorder affecting 347 million people in modern society. Expanding its prevalence beyond developed countries, DM has emerged as a global public health issue associated with a high morbidity and mortality.
At the beginning of Covid-19 pandemic, we proposed to use hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and intranasal interferon (IFN) a-2b spray to prevent SARS-CoV-2.
Diabetes mellitus is a common metabolic disorder that present with abnormal glucose metabolism. This metabolic disease is prevalent in many countries, worldwide. It is no doubt there might be a chance that diabetes mellitus might co-occur with other medical problems.
Since the declaration of COVID-19 as a pandemic in March 2020 , there have been more than 100 million reported cases of COVID-19 worldwide and more than 2.1 million deaths .
COVID-19 and the Health of Illicit Substance Users: Preliminary Analysis from Illicit Drug Transaction Data
While much attention has been given to how COVID-19 patients are treated (or fail to be treated), the impact of the pandemic on illicit drug users remains largely undiscussed
The Clinical Utility of Outpatient Continuous Glucose Monitoring in Establishing Insulinoma Diagnosis in a Patient with Impaired Nocturnal Hypoglycemia Awareness
Insulinomas are insulin secreting tumors arising from spontaneous mutations of the ductal, acinar, or islet cells of the pancreas. They are rare, having an incidence of only four cases per million people per year. Patients typically present with fasting hypoglycemia, experiencing neurologic symptoms like confusion, changes in vision, or abnormal behavior and autonomic symptoms like palpitations, diaphoresis, or tremulousness.
COVID-19 Rapid Diagnostic Test Results and their Associations with Certain Factors Among the Residents of Balochistan
This paper analyses any possible association of various factors like gender, last COVID-19 PCR test results, BCG Vaccination, Seasonal Flu vaccination, occupation and confirmed case contact history with COVID-19 RDT results of the participants.
Commentary: A Herbal Treatment for Type 2 Diabetes – The Dangers of Adulterated and Falsified Products
In 2018, our group published a letter in The Lancet detailing a case in which a patient had taken a herbal preparation to treat her diabetes . In essence, our laboratory was approached by the treating physician after the patient, a 58 year old lady of south Asian origin with a 30 year history of type 2 diabetes said that, during the previous two years, she had replaced some of her prescribed anti-diabetic medication with a herbal remedy purchased in India.
Obesity, Family History of Diabetes, and Consanguineous Marriages are Risk Factors among Urban Population in South Indian City of Bengaluru
In 2017, approximately 424.9 million adults (age 20- 79 yrs) were affected by diabetes, with 4 million deaths. Global diabetes burden is estimated to increase up to 628.9 million people. Moreover, diabetes care costed approximately $727 billion in 2017.
Cut-off Value of Random Blood Glucose among Asian Indians for Preliminary Screening of Persons with Prediabetes and Undetected Type 2 Diabetes Defined by the Glycosylated Haemoglobin Criteria
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) remains undiagnosed for many years in large number of persons living in developing countries. The cost of diagnostic tests and the invasive procedures involved in conventional screening methods remain a major setback to timely testing
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