Volume 2, Issue 3, p102-150
Articles published in this issue are Open Access and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY NC) where the readers can reuse, download, distribute the article in whole or part by mentioning proper credits to the authors.
A 75-year-old male patient presented with gross haematuria and pelvic pain since a month. He is a chronic smoker with 40-pack year index. His family history is insignificant. Ultrasonography showed 2 × 2 cm broad based solid heteroechoic mass along the left lateral wall of urinary bladder.J Exp Pathol, 2021, Volume 2, Issue 3, p102-104 | DOI: 10.33696/pathology.2.021
According to the WHO, obesity has more than doubled since 1980 . The reality, however, is that most of the world’s population live in places where overweight and obesity kill more people than underweight. In 2016, more than a third of adults worldwide were classified as overweight or living with obesity, as were 41 million children younger than 5 years .J Exp Pathol, 2021, Volume 2, Issue 3, p105-116 | DOI: 10.33696/pathology.2.022
Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) mRNA vaccines have gained international acceptance and have been proven to be safe and effective [1,2]. In a study of 3,950 frontline healthcare workers with no previous laboratory documentation of COVID-19 ,J Exp Pathol, 2021, Volume 2, Issue 3, p117-127 | DOI: 10.33696/pathology.2.023
Cytopathological examination (CE) is the main method for early identification of cervical cancer (CC) and its precursor lesions. Also known as Papanicolau, according to , it is recognized as a fast, low cost, and effective for detection, although its vulnerability for collection bias, plate preparation and its interpretation.J Exp Pathol, 2021, Volume 2, Issue 3, p128-137 | DOI: 10.33696/pathology.2.024
Epidemiological Profile and Clinical Conditions of Women with or without Precursor Lesion for Cervical Cancer
Cervical cancer (CC) is a health condition faced by women, and affects mainly developed countries [1,2]. According to the world estimate of 570 thousand new cases, cervix cancer is on the fourth place of most frequent cases, representing 3.2% of all cancer types, and is also on the fourth place regarding mortality . The 2018 estimate was 311,365 deaths worldwide. This corresponds to an estimated risk of 15.1 per thousand women [3,4].J Exp Pathol, 2021, Volume 2, Issue 3, p138-150 | DOI: 10.33696/pathology.2.025
Apoptosis is a physiological response in development and homeostasis of metazoans. Apoptosis is triggered during pathological events as a means to renew affected tissues and eliminate cancer cells. The immune system regulates the extrinsic pathway of apoptosis, where signals such as TNFα or displayed ligands on the surface of immune cells trigger signal cascades by death receptors present on targeted cells.
While the global COVID-19 pandemic has challenged the entire humanity and health systems, it also triggered researchers to urgently perform clinical trials to assess the safety and efficacy of many agents and modalities to combat COVID-19. As of April 22, over 650 clinical studies have been registered both in USA and internationally. Results from these studies are also coming at a brisk pace in this unprecedented emergency.
Ketamine has long been used in the field of anesthesia . Its rapid and long-acting analgesic effects associated with its dissociative properties have also established its use in prehospital and emergency department patients.
The currently ongoing coronavirus pandemic, the SARSCOV- 2, interchangeably referred to as the COVID-19 infection, has in a short span of time altered the ways and means of almost all of mankind. So strong has been its effect that all human activity ceased in one way or another for a considerable time, led to significant loss of life and economic drain of.
Angioimmunoblastic T cell lymphoma (AITL) is one of the most common T-cell lymphomas, second only to peripheral T-cell lymphoma not otherwise specified (PTCL-NOS). Initially AITL was considered a non-malignant lymphadenopathy with immune hyperactivation, nowadays being classified as a PTCL.
Despite the advances in diagnostic and therapeutic field, colorectal cancer (CRC) still remains the third most common cause of death worldwide, with more than 600,000 cancer-related deaths per year.
There are many exciting developments in the field of midlife women’s health which explain how menopause symptoms, particularly hot flashes, may be an important vital sign and predictor of future health status
Five months into the COVID-19 pandemic, the U.S. death toll from the virus has now surpassed 100,000 people. Many more cases remain nationwide, while an unknown number of patients currently harbor the virus asymptomatically. While health officials are now optimistic regarding the decline in prevalence and number of deaths due to COVID-19 and the possibility of a vaccine by the fall, we cannot lose sight of the bigger picture: the next pandemic.
Rituximab is a chimeric (20% rodent and 80% human) monoclonal antibody that binds to the CD20 antigen present on the cell surface and leads to depletion of mature B-cells [1,2]. It is the first approved monoclonal antibody to be used in the therapy of indolent B-cell non- Hodgkin’s lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia
Signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) protein plays a pivotal role in various biological processes especially the regulation of innate and adaptive immune responses. Phosphorylation represents a key step in the activation of STAT1 and its transcriptional outcome. Binding of various extracellular ligands to their specific cell-surface receptors activates different phosphorylation of STAT1 followed by a distinct change of gene expression patterns.
Spontaneous Resolution of Infected Pancreatic Necrosis after Fistulization into Upper Gastrointestinal Tract
A 67-year-old female with a history of arterial hypertension and previous hysterectomy, was recovered, in July 2019, for moderately-severe acute biliary pancreatitis with evidence of stones in gallbladder and bile duct and pancreatic necrosis on imaging (Magnetic Resonance Cholangiopancreatography. A contrast enhanced CT, a week after the admission, showed necrotic areas in the pancreas and a large peripancreatic fluid collection (60 mm long) with air pockets within (acute necrotic collection, with signs of infection. Since she was haemodynamically stable and there was no evidence of organ failure, according to “step-up approach”, she was managed medically with antibiotics (piperacillin-tazobactam + metronidazole) and fluids.
The Role of Direct Oral Anticoagulants in Advanced Chronic Kidney Disease – Questions and Future directions
With the advent of the direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs), patients requiring anticoagulation for common conditions such as atrial fibrillation and venous thromboembolism no longer need to worry about dietary restrictions or regular monitoring of the international normalized ratio which complicated warfarin treatment.
In the article, “Mental Health Framework: Coronavirus pandemic in post-Katrina New Orleans” , Shervington and Richardson offer recommendations about how to anticipate and address disaster-related, trauma exposures associated with the coronavirus pandemic
In January 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) classified COVID-19 to be a Public Health Emergency of International Concern and declared it a pandemic on March 11, 2020 . Over one hundred and eighty-five million people have been infected by SARS-CoV-2 and roughly four million have died worldwide so far
Ultrasounds are acoustic vibrations that are not perceived by the human ear as their frequency is greater than 20,000 Hz. They are artificially generated by the action of the electric current, whose polarity is periodically reversed, on a quartz crystal, subjecting it, by the action of the electromagnetic field created, to successive contractions and expansions. This alternation of movements generates vibrations, which, transmitted to cellular and intercellular structures, cause collisions and generate heat.
We are witnessing the evolution of the diagnostic imaging that is rapidly becoming available to Women’s Health physicians (OB/GYN’s), enabling the use of technology to augment our ability to medically palpate on examination of the patient, to identify conditions which we were unable to appreciate a short time ago.
There is growing body of literature to identify novel prognostic markers in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), including serum ferritin (SF), transferrin levels, alfa fetoprotein (AFP), and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR). Chronic inflammation and fibrogenesis are considered quite essential in the oncogenesis of HCC. The trigger for this inflammation could range from viral hepatitis, alcoholic cirrhosis, to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Also, iron overload as in hereditary hemochromatosis is linked to one of the factors for HCC oncogenesis.
In the last 10 years, the marker “Human Epididymis protein 4 (HE4)” for the management of gynecological tumors has entered powerfully in the world literature. At the moment, carrying out an accurate research in the main scientific portals such as PubMed, we can find more than 2,000 works concerning Cancer antigen-125 (Ca125), but those concerning HE4 are less than 400.
Development of HPV 16/18 E6 Oncoprotein Paperbased Nanokit for Enhanced Detection of HPV 16/18 E6 Oncoprotein in Cervical Cancer Screening
According to global cancer statistics GLOBOCAN, carcinoma of cervix is ranked as the fourth most common malignancy among women worldwide with an estimation of 570,000 cases and 311,000 deaths in 2018. It is the second most common female malignancy in Lowand- Middle Income Countries (LMICs). In Kenya, the prevalence is 25 cases per 100,000 women. Approximately 75% cases of cervical cancer are caused by persistent infections of the cervical mucosal epithelium with carcinogenic types of human papillomaviruses (HPVs) mainly 16 and 18.
Safety and Efficacy of s-MOX Regimen in Patients with Colorectal Cancer Who Developed Cardiotoxicity Following Fluoropyrimidine Administration: A Case Series
5-fluorouracil (5-FU), an antimetabolite in the fluoropyrimidine class, is the third most commonly used chemotherapeutic agent worldwide for the treatment of solid malignancies . Despite advances in novel cancer therapies, commonly used in combination with fluoropyrimidines, 5-FU remains one of the most effective and safe chemotherapy agents to manage colorectal cancer (CRC).
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