Volume 4, Issue 1, p1-51
Articles published in this issue are Open Access and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY NC) where the readers can reuse, download, distribute the article in whole or part by mentioning proper credits to the authors.
We described a 15-year-old- a boy who presented with neurofibromatosis type 1 and Crohn’s disease. Neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) is the most common form of NF, affecting 1 in 3000 individuals. Crohn’s disease is one of the inflammatory bowel diseases. Its incidence is significantly rising in Ireland. Concomitant association of NF1 and Crohn’s disease is a rare finding. This is the first case reported in the paediatric population.Arch Gastroenterol Res, 2023, Volume 4, Issue 1, p1-3 | DOI: 10.33696/Gastroenterology.4.041
Exploring the Use of Point of Care Ultrasound in Screening for Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Systematic Literature Review and Meta-Analysis
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a major cause of cirrhosis and liver failure globally. Despite its broad impact, screening recommendations for NAFLD remain varied based between gastrointestinal societies. Point of care ultrasound (POCUS) has emerged as a new form of screening and diagnosing intrabdominal pathologies including NAFLD. We aimed to estimate the effectiveness of POCUS in screening for NAFLDArch Gastroenterol Res, 2023, Volume 4, Issue 1, p4-11 | DOI: 10.33696/Gastroenterology.4.042
A 40-year-old man received upper gastrointestinal endoscopic scan during a health check-up. There was no history suggestive of Helicobacter pylori eradication, reflux esophagitis, peptic ulcer disease and upper abdominal surgery. Endoscopy revealed a wide-mouthed diverticulum of the size of 1.5 × 2 cm between the fundus and greater curvature of the stomach (Figure 1).Arch Gastroenterol Res, 2023, Volume 4, Issue 1, p12-13 | DOI: 10.33696/Gastroenterology.4.043
Liver fibrosis resulting from chronic liver injury can progress to cirrhosis and liver failure. Current treatments are limited, creating an urgent need for novel antifibrotic therapies. Multiple emerging approaches have shown preclinical promise in inhibiting liver fibrogenesis or stimulating regeneration, including artificial liver support, stem cell therapy, cell/gene therapy, nanomedicines, immunotherapy, and herbal medicines.Arch Gastroenterol Res, 2023, Volume 4, Issue 1, p14-23 | DOI: 10.33696/Gastroenterology.4.044
Advancements in Drug Delivery Systems for Natural Compounds Targeting Metabolic Disorders Associated with Inflammation
The global incidence of metabolic disorders is on the rise, posing a significant challenge to public health. With remarkable advancements in diagnostic tools and clinical procedures, our understanding of the etiology and underlying pathophysiology of these disorders has expanded considerably. Furthermore, the utilization of in vitro and in vivo experimental models, preceding clinical investigations, has catalyzed numerous breakthroughs in biomedicine, particularly in the identification and development of potential drug candidates for the management of metabolic disorders.Arch Gastroenterol Res, 2023, Volume 4, Issue 1, p24-35 | DOI: 10.33696/Gastroenterology.4.045
Numerous studies have found an association between infection by some species of intestinal parasites and the development of urticarial lesions. In this document we have commented on the published findings that show the association between infection by Blastocystis spp. and urticaria, and on the theorizations in relation to the mechanisms that would explain it.Arch Gastroenterol Res, 2023, Volume 4, Issue 1, p36-42 | DOI: 10.33696/Gastroenterology.4.046
Pediatric Functional Constipation in Clinical Practice: The Continuous Search for the Light at the End of the Tunnel
Functional constipation (FC) has a pooled world prevalence of 9.5%, a clear definition by Rome IV Criteria, and the NAPGHAN/ESPGHAN guidelines recommendation for management. With well-defined parameters, this commentary discusses the paths followed by the literature to implement different therapeutic modalities over time. The text will prioritize information based on systematic reviews, meta-analyses, or reviews.Arch Gastroenterol Res, 2023, Volume 4, Issue 1, p43-51 | DOI: 10.33696/Gastroenterology.4.047
Gender Disparities in Outcomes Following Pulmonary Embolism Treatment in the Intensive Care Unit; A Multi-center Retrospective Cohort Study
Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a blockage of blood flow in the pulmonary artery bed that can result in a life-threatening and potentially reversible right ventricular failure . PE remains one of the leading causes of poor prognosis and death, particularly when a shock or right ventricular failure occurs . According to studies, PE is generally manifested in a nonspecific manner
During the last few decades, immunotherapy is considered to be an important approach to help our immune system to fight various kinds of diseases, such as tumor. Sometimes, it works very well for some types of cancers, for example: bladder cancer, colorectal cancer, breast cancer and lymphoma.
The etiology of fetal growth restriction is rooted in inadequate maternal-placental vascular malperfusion (MVM) of the placenta. Risk factors for MVM are broad and include maternal, fetal, and placental antecedent determinants.
Healthy Fetal Outcomes Using A Novel Treatment For Maternal Lyme Disease And Babesiosis During Consecutive Pregnancies: A Case Study and Literature Review
The genus Babesia comprises over 100 species of tick-transmitted protozoal intraerythrocytic pathogens (piroplasms) , causing malarial-type illness. The most common human pathogens in the United States are B. microti  and Babesia duncani (WA- 1) ; Less common species include Babesia MO-1  and KO-1 , as well as Babesia divergens and Babesia venatorum (EU-1) in Europe.
Influence of Clinical Risk Factors on Outcomes in Men with Stage I Non-Seminomatous Germ Cell Tumor Undergoing Robot-Assisted Retroperitoneal Lymph Node Dissection
Retroperitoneal lymph nodes are often the first landing site of metastatic disease in men with testicular cancer. Primary retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND) for clinical stage I NSGCT can accurately surgically stage patients who may have nodal micrometastases, and in some cases, can serve as the primary therapy when volume of metastasis is low.
Development of HPV 16/18 E6 Oncoprotein Paperbased Nanokit for Enhanced Detection of HPV 16/18 E6 Oncoprotein in Cervical Cancer Screening
According to global cancer statistics GLOBOCAN, carcinoma of cervix is ranked as the fourth most common malignancy among women worldwide with an estimation of 570,000 cases and 311,000 deaths in 2018. It is the second most common female malignancy in Lowand- Middle Income Countries (LMICs). In Kenya, the prevalence is 25 cases per 100,000 women. Approximately 75% cases of cervical cancer are caused by persistent infections of the cervical mucosal epithelium with carcinogenic types of human papillomaviruses (HPVs) mainly 16 and 18.
When immune cells are activated, they undergo metabolic change in order to have sufficient energy to function effectively. The Krebs cycle is one of the most important pathways involved in this response and citrate, a critical component of this pathway, regulates carbohydrate and lipid metabolism.
Pain Outcomes with an Elliptical Regimen (POWER) Study: Identifying the Proper Dosage of Exercise for Therapeutic Effect in Persons with Chronic Back Pain
Low back pain (LBP) is one of the most prevalent conditions that will affect 70-85% of individuals at some point in their life . LBP accounts for 2.3% of all visits to the physician, and is the most common area of the body to experience pain . Exercise has been a mainstay for managing persons with chronic low back pain for almost 40
Cardiovascular disease causes 30% of global mortality and is still the number one cause of death worldwide. A main patho-physiological process is the coronary disease leading to malperfusion and ischemic cardiac disease as well as cardiac infarction.
Dendorbium Nobile Lindl. Alkaloids Suppress NF-κB and NLRP3 Signaling Pathways to Attenuate Lipopolysaccharide-induced Neuroinflammation
The important immune cells in the brain are called microglia acting as the central junction between neuroinflammation and neurodegenerative diseases. In patients of cognitive disorders and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) animal models, amoebic morphology and inflammatory pathways are activated to release numerous cells in the inflammatory factors by active microglia.
Inflammation can be caused by various environmental factors, including microbial infection and toxic chemical exposure. In response to inflammation, immune cells like macrophages, B and T lymphocytes, fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and various stromal cells secrete soluble polypeptide cytokine Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha (TNF?)
The immune system developed certain checks and balance to control or inhibit the reactivity against normal cells of the body. Uncontrolled immune responses to the non-self entities such as bacteria, viruses, parasites, or mutated self-antigens can cause an inflammatory reaction and autoimmune diseases.
Cancer nanomedicine was originally developed for more efficient delivery of chemotherapeutic agents into tumor, and has been extensively employed as a therapeutic for cancer treatment owing to its unique features in drug delivery, diagnosis and imaging, as well as the therapeutic nature of some nanomaterials themselves.
In pharmacologic doses niacin (nicotinic acid) has been used clinically for over six decades for atherogenic dyslipidemia and reduction of cardiovascular event risk. In combination with statin therapy, it effects regression of coronary atherosclerosis. Emerging evidence indicates a new potential use for niacin for the treatment of NAFLD and its complications. Despite this enormous amount of data on niacin, there is confusion and misconceptions about its use of a drug rather than as a vitamin, its formulations, and how it can be used in clinical practice. The purpose of this invited brief communication is to update and summarize this emerging evidence. We comment on how it may be valuable in the context of other drugs-in-development for NAFLD, especially for combination therapy for synergistic efficacy.
Cells of the innate and adaptive arm of the immune system including macrophages, natural killer (NK) cells, neutrophils, T cells, and B cells, etc. are crucial for the maintenance of the body’s homeostatic balance and prevention of multiple diseases including cancer.
The Role of Anemia in Term and Preterm Pregnancies: Evidence from the Brazilian Multicenter Study on Preterm Birth (EMIP)
Evaluate the prevalence of anemia in term and preterm pregnancies and compare maternal and perinatal outcomes among groups.
Refractory Gastro-oesophageal Reflux Disease and Laryngopharyngeal Reflux - Use the Bottom up Approach
The pathophysiology of typical gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) symptoms and reflux oesophagitis is associated with excess acid reflux, but both refractory GORD and laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) have strong links with functional gut disorders. Oesophageal pH impedance monitoring, our accepted gold standard for diagnosing GORD, has significant shortcomings when assessing proximal oesophageal and in particular pharyngeal reflux. In addition, identifying potential contamination of other parts of the respiratory tract such as lungs or sinuses is not possible. The association between irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and both refractory GORD and LPR suggests a common pathogenesis.
Commentary on Association between Birth Weight and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease: Evidence from UK Biobank
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the major causes of death worldwide and poses a huge public health burden [1,2]. Early identification of individuals at risk of cardiovascular disease is crucial to develop effective preventions. The DOHAD hypothesis proposed by Professor Barker et al. states that an abnormal environment
Inhaled budesonide benefits patients with COVID-19. ProLung™-budesonide enables the sustained, low dose administration of budesonide within a delivery vehicle similar to lung surfactant.
Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a severe developmental anomaly with an estimated global prevalence at birth of about 2.3 in 10,000 live births. Despite recent advances in antenatal diagnosis, fetal interventions and postnatal management, the condition continues to have a high mortality due to pulmonary hypoplasia and pulmonary hypertension and affected infants can suffer long-term morbidity. In a prospective national population cohort study from the United Kingdom and Ireland,
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