Volume 2, Issue 4, p133-220
Articles published in this issue are Open Access and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY NC) where the readers can reuse, download, distribute the article in whole or part by mentioning proper credits to the authors.
Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Animal Models Available to Characterize Tumor Immunology and Optimize Treatment Development
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second cause of cancer-related death worldwide with almost 1 million new cases per year. At the diagnosis, 70% of patients have only access to a palliative treatment with few therapeutic options mostly represented by tyrosine kinase inhibitors such as sorafenib and lenvatinib in first line; regorafenib and cabozantinib in second line.J Cancer Immunol, 2020, Volume 2, Issue 4, p133-137 | DOI: 10.33696/cancerimmunol.2.026
Recently, Aras et al. reported that MNRR1, a nuclear DNA (nDNA)-encoded mitochondrial antigen, promotes cancer cell migration and the development of metastasis as a proof of concept supporting the participation of mitochondrial autoimmunity in breast carcinogenesis.J Cancer Immunol, 2020, Volume 2, Issue 4, p138-158 | DOI: 10.33696/cancerimmunol.2.027
Ovarian Function Suppression Plus Aromatase Inhibitors or Tamoxifen in Premenopausal HR-positive Breast Cancer
Breast cancer is the most common type of malignant tumor in women, accounting for 30% of women’s cancer, while the mortality rate ranks second among women’s cancer. Twenty-five percent of all breast cancer patients are premenopausal patients, and 7% of patients are younger than 40 years old.J Cancer Immunol, 2020, Volume 2, Issue 4, p185-193 | DOI: 10.33696/cancerimmunol.2.029
In 1987, Charles Moertel and colleagues published a landmark series on 150 patients with appendiceal neuroendocrine tumors (ANET) that showed patients with tumors less than 2 cm in size had no evidence of regional or distant metastasis.J Cancer Immunol, 2020, Volume 2, Issue 4, p194-198 | DOI: 10.33696/cancerimmunol.2.030
While cells with a 2n complement of chromosomes are defined as diploid, cells that possess greater than 2n are referred to as polyploid.J Cancer Immunol, 2020, Volume 2, Issue 4, p199-206 | DOI: 10.33696/cancerimmunol.2.031
High Lymph Node Positive to Sampled Ratio as a Potential Indication for Postoperative Radiation Therapy in Patients with pN2 Non-small-cell Lung Cancer
Despite advances in cancer treatment and screening, lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer death in the United States. The majority of cases are locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), treatment of which usually includes a bi- or tri-modality therapy utilizing a combination of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy.J Cancer Immunol, 2020, Volume 2, Issue 4, p207-210 | DOI: 10.33696/cancerimmunol.2.032
Susceptibility of Malignant Brain Tumors to 5-aminolaevulinic Acid Mediated Photodynamic Therapy: Direct Phototoxicity and Immunological Effects
Recently we published the article ‘Accumulation of protoporphyrin IX in medulloblastoma cell lines and sensitivity to subsequent photodynamic treatment’.J Cancer Immunol, 2020, Volume 2, Issue 4, p211-215 | DOI: 10.33696/cancerimmunol.2.033
Leukemia is the most common childhood malignancy and is the most common cause of cancer death before the age of 20. Pediatric leukemia can be subdivided into acute versus chronic and lymphoid versus myeloid leukemia.J Cancer Immunol, 2020, Volume 2, Issue 4, p159-184 | DOI: 10.33696/cancerimmunol.2.028
Cancer/testis antigens (CTA) are tumor antigens whose expression is normally restricted to the testis. More than half of CTA genes are located on the X chromosome and form a branch called X-CTA . Unlike the remaining CTA genes located throughout the genome, multigene X-CTA families are present as clusters on the X chromosome.J Cancer Immunol, 2020, Volume 2, Issue 4, p216-220 | DOI: 10.33696/cancerimmunol.2.034
Apoptosis is a physiological response in development and homeostasis of metazoans. Apoptosis is triggered during pathological events as a means to renew affected tissues and eliminate cancer cells. The immune system regulates the extrinsic pathway of apoptosis, where signals such as TNFα or displayed ligands on the surface of immune cells trigger signal cascades by death receptors present on targeted cells.
Prevalence of Symptom Clusters in Cancer Patients at First Presentation in Palliative Care Clinic as per Different Disease Groups
Cancer has its own disease burden and patients usually suffer from symptom clusters when they are referred for palliative treatment. Identification of symptom cluster trajectories will help clinician to take into account measures that can optimize quality of life of palliative patients. Therefore the aim of this paper is to determine the overall prevalence of symptoms and symptoms clusters in different disease groups according to etiology at the time of first visit to Palliative care clinic by using HIS Palliative First Assessment note indicating Edmonton symptom scale.
Although NK cells are recognized as effector lymphocytes of the innate immune system, they also regulate the adaptive immune response by releasing inflammatory cytokines and developing immunological memory. Unlike other lymphocytes such as T or B cells, NK cells do not express rearrangeable, antigen-specific receptors.
The transient receptor potential mucolipin 1 (TRPML1) is an endolysosomal channel belonging to the TRP family. Clinically, mutations of TRPML1 have been responsible for a severe lysosomal storage disorder called mucolipidosis type IV.
Ketamine has long been used in the field of anesthesia . Its rapid and long-acting analgesic effects associated with its dissociative properties have also established its use in prehospital and emergency department patients.
Uniportal VATS Lobectomy for Lung Cancer: Feasibility and Cost Effectiveness in a Single Center Experience
In last decades, video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) together with robotic-assisted thoracic surgery (RATS) can be considered the biggest innovation in thoracic surgery. This approach drastically changed the way of performing surgical operations, improving patient’s outcome undergoing thoracic surgery.
In order to implement the knowledge of cancer to monitor its evolution and setting, in the last decade, new minimally invasive and repeatable samples collection have been developed such as liquid biopsy.
Despite the advances in diagnostic and therapeutic field, colorectal cancer (CRC) still remains the third most common cause of death worldwide, with more than 600,000 cancer-related deaths per year.
During the last few decades, immunotherapy is considered to be an important approach to help our immune system to fight various kinds of diseases, such as tumor. Sometimes, it works very well for some types of cancers, for example: bladder cancer, colorectal cancer, breast cancer and lymphoma.
Synthetic Lethal Drug Combinations Targeting Proteasome and Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors in TP53-Mutated Cancers
Tumors harboring mutations in certain oncogenes are often dependent on activation of certain pathways which becomes essential for the survival of the cancer cells. This condition is formally known as synthetic lethality, a state when simultaneous loss of two genes is lethal to a cancer cell, while the loss of the individual genes is not.
The gut microbiome or gut flora is a vast community of microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, protozoa, and fungi that inhabit the digestive tract of the human and other animals [1,2]. In the human body, bacterial species colonize into the oral cavity, skin, vagina, and placenta, however, the largest population of microorganisms resides in the intestine.
Cancer is a worldwide public health issue that affects millions of people every year. In 2018 there were 17 million newly documented cases of cancer globally (8.8 million in men and 8.2 million in women), leading to 9.6 million deaths. Cancer is a vastly heterogeneous disease, with over 100 different types of cancer currently identified in humans; the most common types of cancer are lung, female breast, bowel and prostate, these four types account for more than 40% of all new cancer case
In the last 10 years, the marker “Human Epididymis protein 4 (HE4)” for the management of gynecological tumors has entered powerfully in the world literature. At the moment, carrying out an accurate research in the main scientific portals such as PubMed, we can find more than 2,000 works concerning Cancer antigen-125 (Ca125), but those concerning HE4 are less than 400.
Breast cancer is the second most common cancer worldwide, affecting nearly one in eight women. Accurate cancer staging is essential for determining the patient’s prognosis and for choosing the appropriate treatment.
However, the entire coagulation cascade is dysfunctional, in progressed chronic diabetes and cancer patients.
Development of HPV 16/18 E6 Oncoprotein Paperbased Nanokit for Enhanced Detection of HPV 16/18 E6 Oncoprotein in Cervical Cancer Screening
According to global cancer statistics GLOBOCAN, carcinoma of cervix is ranked as the fourth most common malignancy among women worldwide with an estimation of 570,000 cases and 311,000 deaths in 2018. It is the second most common female malignancy in Lowand- Middle Income Countries (LMICs). In Kenya, the prevalence is 25 cases per 100,000 women. Approximately 75% cases of cervical cancer are caused by persistent infections of the cervical mucosal epithelium with carcinogenic types of human papillomaviruses (HPVs) mainly 16 and 18.
Gastric cancer (GC), also known as stomach cancer, is a worldwide health problem. Anatomically, it can occur from the gastroesophageal junction to distal portions of the stomach. Considering both sexes, worldwide, it is the 5th most common neoplasm (5.7%) and the 3rd cause of mortality among malignancies, leading to approximately 782,000 deaths in 2018. The incidence varies geographically but 50% of new cases are diagnosed in developed countries. High incidence is observed in Asia, Latin America, and in the central and eastern parts of Europe. There are several ways to classify GC, but the most used is Lauren’s Classification, which proposes two main histological groups: intestinal and diffuse. This classification is important because there are marked etiological, pathological, and epidemiological differences between the subgroups, guiding the clinical approach for each patient.
Botulinum toxin (BT) is a potent poisonous neurotoxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum and related species . Its action consists of inhibiting neuromuscular junctions by blocking the release of acetylcholine and desensitizing sensory nerves.
Safety and Efficacy of s-MOX Regimen in Patients with Colorectal Cancer Who Developed Cardiotoxicity Following Fluoropyrimidine Administration: A Case Series
5-fluorouracil (5-FU), an antimetabolite in the fluoropyrimidine class, is the third most commonly used chemotherapeutic agent worldwide for the treatment of solid malignancies . Despite advances in novel cancer therapies, commonly used in combination with fluoropyrimidines, 5-FU remains one of the most effective and safe chemotherapy agents to manage colorectal cancer (CRC).
Cancer cells reprogram their nutrition metabolism to meet their high bioenergetic and biosynthetic demands in support of rapid growth and continuous proliferation . Both glycolysis and glutaminolysis are altered in cancer cells.
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