Volume 4, Issue 2, p33-70
Articles published in this issue are Open Access and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY NC) where the readers can reuse, download, distribute the article in whole or part by mentioning proper credits to the authors.
Higher Frequency and Poor Prognosis with COVID-19 Associated Cytokine Storm among Cancer Patients: Between Two Fires
At the end of 2019, the world faced a new disease, COVID-19 caused by SARS-Cov-2 and became a pandemic within few weeks. The fact that COVID-19 spreads very quickly and has
significant morbidity and mortality had devastating effects all over the world.
The incidence and prevalence of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) are increasing worldwide and it is the 5th most common endocrine cancer in females.J Cancer Immunol, 2022, Volume 4, Issue 2, p43-46 | DOI: 10.33696/cancerimmunol.4.064
The Tyrer-Cuzick (TC) model is a breast cancer risk assessment tool that provides women with their risk of developing breast cancer based on genetic and personal factors. The most recent version of the TC model, TC8, is the first version to include breast density as a risk factor for breast cancer.J Cancer Immunol, 2022, Volume 4, Issue 2, p47-51 | DOI: 10.33696/cancerimmunol.4.065
The adoptive transfer of T cells expressing chimeric antigen receptors (CAR-T cells) has revolutionized the treatment of hematological malignancies, providing unmatched clinical responses in adults and children with relapsed or refractory B cell malignancies.J Cancer Immunol, 2022, Volume 4, Issue 2, p52-59 | DOI: 10.33696/cancerimmunol.4.066
My team of chemists have formulated molecular iodine (I2) so it can be studied independent of other iodine species.The initial impetus for this effort was to allow for a higher concentration of biocidal I2 that would not evaporate into the atmosphere when applied to skin.J Cancer Immunol, 2022, Volume 4, Issue 2, p60-64 | DOI: 10.33696/cancerimmunol.4.067
Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs), combining the best features of monoclonal antibodies and small molecule drugs, are considered the “guided missiles” for cancer therapy, with eleven FDA-approved products. Yet the ADC modality still presents a huge challenge to drug developers, especially for targeting tumors with low abundance and/or heterogeneity of tumor-associated antigens.J Cancer Immunol, 2022, Volume 4, Issue 2, p65-70 | DOI: 10.33696/cancerimmunol.4.068
Prevalence of Symptom Clusters in Cancer Patients at First Presentation in Palliative Care Clinic as per Different Disease Groups
Cancer has its own disease burden and patients usually suffer from symptom clusters when they are referred for palliative treatment. Identification of symptom cluster trajectories will help clinician to take into account measures that can optimize quality of life of palliative patients. Therefore the aim of this paper is to determine the overall prevalence of symptoms and symptoms clusters in different disease groups according to etiology at the time of first visit to Palliative care clinic by using HIS Palliative First Assessment note indicating Edmonton symptom scale.
Although NK cells are recognized as effector lymphocytes of the innate immune system, they also regulate the adaptive immune response by releasing inflammatory cytokines and developing immunological memory. Unlike other lymphocytes such as T or B cells, NK cells do not express rearrangeable, antigen-specific receptors.
Proton minibeam radiotherapy (pMBRT) is an external beam radiotherapy method with reduced side effects by taking advantage of spatial fractionation in the normal tissue. Due to scattering, the delivered small beams widen in the tissue ensuring a homogeneous dose distribution in the tumor. In this review, the physical and biological principles regarding dose distribution and healing effects are explained. In the last decade, several preclinical studies have been conducted addressing normal tissue sparing and tumor control in-vitro and in-vivo, using human skin tissue and mouse or rat models. The major results acquired in these studies are summarized. A further newly emerging therapy method is FLASH radiotherapy, i.e. the treatment using ultra-high dose rates. The possibility of combining these methods in proton minibeam FLASH therapy (pMB FLASH) is worked out. Additionally, technical feasibility and limitations will be discussed by looking at simulations as well as preclinical studies and also pointing out new ways of delivering the desired tumor dose, such as interlacing. We will also highlight the opportunities that emerge regarding high dose radiation, hypofractionation and the combination with immunotherapy.
Breast Cancer is the most regularly diagnosed type of cancer in women in the world, making up on its own 25% of all cases, or nearly 2 million new cases in 2018, and 15% of all cancer related deaths, or around 626,700 deaths for that same year.
Commentary on "The Gene Master Regulators GMR Approach Provides Legitimate Targets for Personalized, Time-Sensitive Cancer Gene Therapy"
For decades, the scientific community tried hard to identify the gene biomarkers whose mutations or regulations cause (better say are associated with) specific forms of cancer. For instance, the September 17th 2019 release of the Genomic Data Commons Data Portal includes 3,142,246 mutations detected in 22,872 genes sequenced from 37,075 cases of cancers localized in 67 primary sites.
According to estimates from the International Agency for Research on Cancer, by the year 2030 there will be 22 million new cancer cases and 13 million deaths per year. The main reason for death from cancer is not the initial tumor but it’s metastasis to distant parts of the body, yet this process has remained poorly understood for quite some time.
The immune system developed certain checks and balance to control or inhibit the reactivity against normal cells of the body. Uncontrolled immune responses to the non-self entities such as bacteria, viruses, parasites, or mutated self-antigens can cause an inflammatory reaction and autoimmune diseases.
Autophagy was originally viewed as a widely conserved multistep lysosomal degradation pathway in eukaryotes. It includes the formation of autophagosomes, doublemembrane structures engulfing cytoplasm with damaged organelles during the degradation process.
Tumor angiogenesis, a hallmark of cancer, is a critical step in the tumorigenesis of solid cancers. The process of tumor angiogenesis is orchestrated by a range of secreted factors, signaling pathways as well as nonendothelial cells.
At present, breast cancer is more frequently diagnosed in women than in men. According to global cancer statistics, each year more than 1,675,000 women are diagnosed and more than 500,000 of them die. Some subtypes of breast cancer have been described.
Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning in Cancer Care: Current Applications and Future Perspectives
Cancer is the second most common cause of death worldwide, accounting for an estimated 9.6 million deaths in the year 2018, a number that is expected to grow to more than 13 million by 2030. In the past decade, we have witnessed unprecedented scientific advancement in the understanding of cancer etiology, prevention, diagnosis and development of new therapeutic strategies.
Aerosol Distribution Pattern of a Single-port Device: New Perspective Treatment for Peritoneal Carcinomatosis in Brazil
The local and peritoneal recurrence play a vital role in the natural history of the evolution of gastrointestinal and ovarian neoplasms. Different methods of applying intraperitoneal chemotherapy were used perioperatively to consolidate or control peritoneal carcinomatosis.
The arrival of recombinant insulin in the pharmaceutical market paved a new direction for the clinical potential of proteins. Thus, the pharmaceutical industry underwent a paradigm shift towards proteins as therapeutic moieties.
Verrucous Carcinoma of the Esophagus: Its Unique Etiology and Association with Human Papilloma Virus
Verrucous carcinoma is an extremely rare disease, and it is unique in terms of its appearance, growth pattern, and etiology. In 1948, Ackerman first described verrucous squamous cell carcinoma (VSC) as a variant of oral squamous cell carcinoma, and he collected 31 cases of oral neoplasms under the name, “Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity.”
Each cell in the body contains hundreds of mitochondria; each mitochondrion contains several DNA molecules, each carrying 37 genes that participate in the production of energy.
Aging is a complicated process not yet fully understood. Driven by a variety of stressors such as infectious agents, radiation, intracellular stress, and stressing metabolic conditions, molecular damage occurs over time. Among many consequences, age-related unchecked molecular damage leads to immunosenescence, a hallmark of aging.
We have recently published an article entitled “Purinergic signaling and tumor microenvironment in cervical Cancer”. In this paper, we reviewed the last studies about purinergic signaling and cervical cancer, highlighting the intrinsic factors related to the inflammatory process, such as extracellular nucleotides and adenosine - components of the purinergic system.
Tissues are composed of various types of interacting cells . To understand the cellular organization and function in tissues, it is necessary to identify all of the different cell types and the locations of these different cell types within tissue structures.
Inhibition of Autophagy and Immune Response: Alpha-fetoprotein Stimulates Initiation of Liver Cancer
Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is a tumorous marker for the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), it is synthesized mainly by the embryo yolk sac, fetal liver and the gastrointestinal tract. AFP belongs to the family of protein products of albuminoid genes, which are located in tandem arrangement in chromosome 4 (region 4q11-q13).
Pancreatic cancer is one of the most lethal solid tumor malignancies and it is projected to become a leading cause of cancer related deaths in coming years. It is often diagnosed at an advanced stage owing to the lack of specific symptoms and rapid invasion.