Articles published in this issue are Open Access and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY NC) where the readers can reuse, download, distribute the article in whole or part by mentioning proper credits to the authors.
The Nature of Radiation-induced Inherited Recessive Gene Mutations in Drosophila Melanogaster
The nature of gene mutations induced by ionizing radiation in germ cells and transmitted to offspring remains one of the most important problems in radiation genetics of higher eukaryotes. The data accumulated in this field were obtained by different authors under different experimental conditions which does not give a complete insight about the nature of radiation-induced inherited mutations at different genome levels (chromosome, gene, DNA).
Karyotypic Profile of Chronic Myeloid Leukemia in Patients Diagnosed at Tertiary Level in Afghanistan
Balanced translocation resulting in fusion of the Abelson gene (ABL1) from chromosome 9q34 with the breakpoint cluster region (BCR) gene on chromosome 22q11.2 is the pathognomonic molecular driver of CML. The resulting BCRABL 1 fusion gene is both the diagnostic as well as therapeutic target of CML. The first agent with tyrosine kinase inhibitor activity that was licenced in 2000 for treatment of CML patients, was Imatinib, gradually followed by multiple agents with higher efficacy.
Escherichia coli Stress, Multi-cellularity, and the Generation of the Quorum Sensing Peptide EDF
Bacterial communication via quorum sensing (QS) molecules, as well as toxin-antitoxin (TA) gene modules located on bacterial chromosomes are well-studied mechanisms. Escherichia coli mazEF is a stress-induced TA system mediating cell death requiring a QS extracellular death factor (EDF), the pentapeptide NNWNN. MazF is an endoribonuclease specific for ACA sites. During adverse conditions, the activated MazF generates a stress induced translation machinery, composed of MazF-processed mRNAs and selective ribosomes that specifically translate these processed mRNAs.
Constitutively Active Death Receptor Induces Apoptosis in Mammalian Cells
Apoptosis is a physiological response in development and homeostasis of metazoans. Apoptosis is triggered during pathological events as a means to renew affected tissues and eliminate cancer cells. The immune system regulates the extrinsic pathway of apoptosis, where signals such as TNFα or displayed ligands on the surface of immune cells trigger signal cascades by death receptors present on targeted cells.
Commentary on NOBOX Mutations in Premature Ovarian Insufficiency
NOBOX is an ovarian specific transcription factor that plays an important role in follicular growth and survival. Nineteen NOBOX variants have been previously associated with premature ovarian insufficiency (POI). Disease severity in patients with heterozygous and homozygous mutations largely overlap however, hampering genotype-phenotype correlations. We recently reported the first case of biallelic truncating mutations (NM_001080413.3 (NOBOX):c.826C>T, p.(Arg276*) and NM_001080413.3(NOBOX):c.1421del, p.(Gly474Alafs*76)) of NOBOX in two Belgian sisters with POI.
Actors of ROS Homeostasis in Stigmatic Cells Essential for Plant Reproduction
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play important roles during development and responses to external stimuli. In Brassicaceae, the stigma epidermis accumulates a large amount of ROS. Moreover, regulating the stigmatic ROS status is crucial for Self-incompatibility (SI) mechanisms, to ensure self-pollen rejection while promoting compatible pollen. Here, scanning our transcriptomic data in light of recent advances in the Brassicaceae SI system, we identified Class III peroxidases that are highly expressed in mature stigma and might regulate stigma ROS homeostasis.
Impact of Sleep on Autophagy and Neurodegenerative Disease: Sleeping Your Mind Clear
Sleep is an evolutionarily conserved phenomenon which has survived tremendous evolutionary pressures. Its disruption has deleterious implications for human health. The importance of sleep is illustrated by the fact that sleep deprivation in many animals leads to death. While sleep is tightly regulated by a combination of intrinsic and extrinsic factors it becomes progressively disrupted in old age and in neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer’s disease (AD), frontotemporal dementia (FTD), Parkinson’s disease (PD) and Huntington’s disease (HD).
SARS-CoV-2 Mutations, Diagnosis and Their Concern
The first case is described in Wuhan city of China in December 2019 and the disease (COVID-19) continues to pose threat to global health all over the world affecting more than approximately 476 million confirmed cases and 6 million deaths. Reliable and effective methods are taken a critical role such as real-time reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR test as a gold standard method, serological tests, and reverse transcriptase loopmediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) method is chosen firstly.
Commentary on "Type II Toxin-antitoxin Systems Have a Peculiar Localization in Escherichia Coli Cells"
Bacterial Toxin-Antitoxin (TA) modules were extensively studied. They are located on extra chromosomal genetic elements as well as on bacterial chromosomes. They carry two genes. One encoding for the toxin, and the other for the antitoxin. The toxin is a stable protein, while the antitoxin is either RNA or a labile protein. They are divided into six groups, among them group II is the most studied.
Risk Management Implemented by Turkey during the COVID-19 Pandemic Disaster
The coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak occurred in China and spread to the whole world in a short period of time. The WHO (World Health Organization) named the viral disease as COVID-19 (Novel Coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2) on February 11, 2020.