Volume 3, Issue 6, p355-418
Articles published in this issue are Open Access and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY NC) where the readers can reuse, download, distribute the article in whole or part by mentioning proper credits to the authors.
Low-molecular weight proteins, cofactors, amino acids, metabolites and many bioactive signaling molecules are filtered through the glomeruli. Evolution has yielded highly conserved pathways in proximal tubule epithelium for the reabsorption of filtered molecules;J Cell Immunol, 2021, Volume 3, Issue 6, p364-369 | DOI: 10.33696/immunology.3.118
The COVID-19 pandemic has now impacted the global population for over a year. It has been devastating for many and has challenged us all in many ways. While the advent of vaccinations looks to curtail the number of cases, multiple challenges to ending the pandemic remain, including the advent of variants, vaccine hesitancy, access to vaccines, and the impaired efficacy of vaccines in immunocompromised persons. Thus, it is still essential to continue investigating treatments for COVID-19.J Cell Immunol, 2021, Volume 3, Issue 6, p370-374 | DOI: 10.33696/immunology.3.119
Vaccine development began in the 1790’s when Edward Jenner used cowpox to confer protection against the smallpox virus. The field of vaccinology has greatly expanded since then, wherein vaccination has been a valuable tool in the decline of many diseases.J Cell Immunol, 2021, Volume 3, Issue 6, p375-379 | DOI: 10.33696/immunology.3.120
Application of Mucosal Immune-related Molecular Adjuvants CCL19 and CCL28 in Enhancing the Function of HSV-2 gD DNA Vaccine
Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) develops an annual incidence of 2.3 million people worldwide, which can lead to life-long latent infections, asymptomatic and reactivations [1,2], and with occasional symptomatic episodes causing ulcerative lesions in the genitalia and naus.J Cell Immunol, 2021, Volume 3, Issue 6, p380-386 | DOI: 10.33696/immunology.3.121
Interleukin (IL)-2 was first identified as a potent T cell growth factor in 1976  and cloned in 1983 . In the late 1990s, IL-2 gained further attention as the first immunotherapy demonstrating clinical efficacy against metastatic cancer, as high dose IL-2 was approved by the United States Food & Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma in 1992 and metastatic melanoma in 1998.J Cell Immunol, 2021, Volume 3, Issue 6, p387-396 | DOI: 10.33696/immunology.3.122
Human Gray and White Matter Metabolomics to Differentiate APOE and Stage Dependent Changes in Alzheimer’s Disease
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a leading cause of death and morbidity in the United States . The hallmarks of AD are β-amyloid (Aβ) and tau. However, studies have indicated that metabolic dysfunction may play a more pivotal role in the progression of AD . Glucose hypometabolism and mitochondrial dysfunction are well-known features of AD .J Cell Immunol, 2021, Volume 3, Issue 6, p397-412 | DOI: 10.33696/immunology.3.123
Hemophilia is a rare congenital bleeding disorder caused by a lack of or diminished activity of clotting factor VIII (hemophilia A) or IX (hemophilia B). This deficiency leads to an increase in spontaneous and traumatic bleeding especially in the large hinged joints.J Cell Immunol, 2021, Volume 3, Issue 6, p355-363 | DOI: 10.33696/immunology.3.124
Radiation therapy (RT) is a highly sophisticated and effective cancer treatment modality that is of central importance in modern oncology. It is estimated that RT contributes to 40% of all cancer cures and at least 1 in 2 cancer patients would benefit from RT during their course of illness [1,2].J Cell Immunol, 2021, Volume 3, Issue 6, p413-418 | DOI: 10.33696/immunology.3.125
Although NK cells are recognized as effector lymphocytes of the innate immune system, they also regulate the adaptive immune response by releasing inflammatory cytokines and developing immunological memory. Unlike other lymphocytes such as T or B cells, NK cells do not express rearrangeable, antigen-specific receptors.
While the global COVID-19 pandemic has challenged the entire humanity and health systems, it also triggered researchers to urgently perform clinical trials to assess the safety and efficacy of many agents and modalities to combat COVID-19. As of April 22, over 650 clinical studies have been registered both in USA and internationally. Results from these studies are also coming at a brisk pace in this unprecedented emergency.
Ketamine has long been used in the field of anesthesia . Its rapid and long-acting analgesic effects associated with its dissociative properties have also established its use in prehospital and emergency department patients.
The currently ongoing coronavirus pandemic, the SARSCOV- 2, interchangeably referred to as the COVID-19 infection, has in a short span of time altered the ways and means of almost all of mankind. So strong has been its effect that all human activity ceased in one way or another for a considerable time, led to significant loss of life and economic drain of.
DILI, HILI, RUCAM Algorithm, and AI, the Artificial Intelligence: Provocative issues, Progress, and Proposals
Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques represent a fascinating, provocative, and challenging discipline, are pervasive and of global importance. The European Commission summarized the current state in a White Paper on AI issues released on 19 February 2020, discussing various AI concepts that revolutionized many complex processes
Five months into the COVID-19 pandemic, the U.S. death toll from the virus has now surpassed 100,000 people. Many more cases remain nationwide, while an unknown number of patients currently harbor the virus asymptomatically. While health officials are now optimistic regarding the decline in prevalence and number of deaths due to COVID-19 and the possibility of a vaccine by the fall, we cannot lose sight of the bigger picture: the next pandemic.
Rituximab is a chimeric (20% rodent and 80% human) monoclonal antibody that binds to the CD20 antigen present on the cell surface and leads to depletion of mature B-cells [1,2]. It is the first approved monoclonal antibody to be used in the therapy of indolent B-cell non- Hodgkin’s lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia
During the last few decades, immunotherapy is considered to be an important approach to help our immune system to fight various kinds of diseases, such as tumor. Sometimes, it works very well for some types of cancers, for example: bladder cancer, colorectal cancer, breast cancer and lymphoma.
In the article, “Mental Health Framework: Coronavirus pandemic in post-Katrina New Orleans” , Shervington and Richardson offer recommendations about how to anticipate and address disaster-related, trauma exposures associated with the coronavirus pandemic
In January 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) classified COVID-19 to be a Public Health Emergency of International Concern and declared it a pandemic on March 11, 2020 . Over one hundred and eighty-five million people have been infected by SARS-CoV-2 and roughly four million have died worldwide so far
The gut microbiome or gut flora is a vast community of microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, protozoa, and fungi that inhabit the digestive tract of the human and other animals [1,2]. In the human body, bacterial species colonize into the oral cavity, skin, vagina, and placenta, however, the largest population of microorganisms resides in the intestine.
STARTTS Capoeira Angola Project Bantu: Combining Alternative Therapeutic Intervention with Sport for Traumatized Young Refugees: On the Way to Recovery
During the last decade, the world experienced an incredible increase in displaced populations; a staggering 70.8 million, which has been a direct outcome of war and human rights violations. This figure includes 25.9 million having been identified as refugees, and 51% constituting children below 18 years of age which has been documented as the highest figure in a decade.
The COVID-19 pandemic has provoked a global, rapid increase of cases due to the high infectivity of the etiological agent, COVID-19 virus. In February 2021, over 110 million confirmed COVID-19 cases with 1 million deaths were reported worldwide (www.who.int).
Dexamethasone: The First Drug to be Shown to Decrease Mortality in Critically Ill Patients with COVID-19
The precise role of corticosteroids for treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is unclear due to lack of randomized trials.
Since December 2019, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) caused by 2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) has resulted in 89,000 cases of Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), formerly known as Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia (NCP) in China, including 2,450 deaths.
The immune system developed certain checks and balance to control or inhibit the reactivity against normal cells of the body. Uncontrolled immune responses to the non-self entities such as bacteria, viruses, parasites, or mutated self-antigens can cause an inflammatory reaction and autoimmune diseases.
Cancer nanomedicine was originally developed for more efficient delivery of chemotherapeutic agents into tumor, and has been extensively employed as a therapeutic for cancer treatment owing to its unique features in drug delivery, diagnosis and imaging, as well as the therapeutic nature of some nanomaterials themselves.
COVID-19 is the new emerging viral infection that already cause global public health problem [1-3]. More than 220 countries/territories are already attacked and there are more than 17 million patients around the world
After one year in a pandemic, we mourn the loss of over half a million lives in the United States, and over four million worldwide, and remain concerned over the challenges facing the families of 35 million people in the United States, and 200 million worldwide, who have suffered from cases of COVID-19.
Cells of the innate and adaptive arm of the immune system including macrophages, natural killer (NK) cells, neutrophils, T cells, and B cells, etc. are crucial for the maintenance of the body’s homeostatic balance and prevention of multiple diseases including cancer.
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