Volume 4, Issue 1, p1-33
Articles published in this issue are Open Access and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY NC) where the readers can reuse, download, distribute the article in whole or part by mentioning proper credits to the authors.
Towards a Better Understanding of Staphylococcus aureus Skin Infections-The Interactions with Dendritic Cells
In healthy individuals, Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) can be found commensally in sebaceous sites in the skin microbiome .J Cell Immunol, 2022, Volume 4, Issue 1, p6-14 | DOI: 10.33696/immunology.4.127
Glucose Metabolism is a Better Marker for Predicting Clinical Alzheimer’s Disease than Amyloid or Tau
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) research has long been dominated with communications regarding the amyloid hypothesis and targeting amyloid clearance through pharmacological therapies from the brain .J Cell Immunol, 2022, Volume 4, Issue 1, p15-18 | DOI: 10.33696/immunology.4.128
Comparison of Gene Editing versus a Neutrophil Elastase Inhibitor as Potential Therapies for ELANE Neutropenia
Mutations in ELANE, the gene for neutrophil elastase (NE), are the most common cause of cyclic and severe congenital neutropeniaJ Cell Immunol, 2022, Volume 4, Issue 1, p19-28 | DOI: 10.33696/immunology.4.129
Commentary: Experimental Mouse Models of Invasive Candidiasis Caused by Candida auris and Other Medically Important Candida Species
Disseminated candidiasis is the leading cause of lifethreatening fungal infections in humans. This is especially the case in immunocompromised individuals, and in hospitalized patients including intensive care unit patients.J Cell Immunol, 2022, Volume 4, Issue 1, p29-33 | DOI: 10.33696/immunology.4.130
Karyotypic Profile of Chronic Myeloid Leukemia in Patients Diagnosed at Tertiary Level in Afghanistan
Balanced translocation resulting in fusion of the Abelson gene (ABL1) from chromosome 9q34 with the breakpoint cluster region (BCR) gene on chromosome 22q11.2 is the pathognomonic molecular driver of CML. The resulting BCRABL 1 fusion gene is both the diagnostic as well as therapeutic target of CML. The first agent with tyrosine kinase inhibitor activity that was licenced in 2000 for treatment of CML patients, was Imatinib, gradually followed by multiple agents with higher efficacy.
Synthetic Lethal Drug Combinations Targeting Proteasome and Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors in TP53-Mutated Cancers
Tumors harboring mutations in certain oncogenes are often dependent on activation of certain pathways which becomes essential for the survival of the cancer cells. This condition is formally known as synthetic lethality, a state when simultaneous loss of two genes is lethal to a cancer cell, while the loss of the individual genes is not.
When immune cells are activated, they undergo metabolic change in order to have sufficient energy to function effectively. The Krebs cycle is one of the most important pathways involved in this response and citrate, a critical component of this pathway, regulates carbohydrate and lipid metabolism.
Molecular Biology for BCR-ABL1 Quantification for Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Monitorization and Evaluation
Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML) is a clonal disorder originated by a pluripotent hematopoietic stem cell, which presents the translocation t(9;22) (q34;q11) in 90% of the cases.
Inflammation can be caused by various environmental factors, including microbial infection and toxic chemical exposure. In response to inflammation, immune cells like macrophages, B and T lymphocytes, fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and various stromal cells secrete soluble polypeptide cytokine Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha (TNF?)
The immune system developed certain checks and balance to control or inhibit the reactivity against normal cells of the body. Uncontrolled immune responses to the non-self entities such as bacteria, viruses, parasites, or mutated self-antigens can cause an inflammatory reaction and autoimmune diseases.
Necroptosis is a form of programed necrosis mediated by receptor-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase 1 (RIP1) and RIP3 and the subsequent phosphorylation of mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein (MLKL) [1-4]. Necroptosis has been implicated in multiple human diseases such as myocardial infarction, atherosclerosis, and abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). Levels of RIP3 are elevated in the human tissues affected by these diseases.
Bromodomain and Extra-Terminal Family Protein Inhibitors: A Potentially New Therapy for Heart Disease
Bromodomain-containing protein 4 (BRD4) is a member of the mammalian bromo- and extra-terminal domain (BET) protein family, which also comprises BRD2, BRD3, and testis-specific BRDt.
Recently, Aras et al. reported that MNRR1, a nuclear DNA (nDNA)-encoded mitochondrial antigen, promotes cancer cell migration and the development of metastasis as a proof of concept supporting the participation of mitochondrial autoimmunity in breast carcinogenesis.
Ovarian Function Suppression Plus Aromatase Inhibitors or Tamoxifen in Premenopausal HR-positive Breast Cancer
Breast cancer is the most common type of malignant tumor in women, accounting for 30% of women’s cancer, while the mortality rate ranks second among women’s cancer. Twenty-five percent of all breast cancer patients are premenopausal patients, and 7% of patients are younger than 40 years old.
The Inappropriate Use of Proton Pump Inhibitors: An Internal Medicine Residency Clinics Effort to Deprescribe
Since 1989, PPIs have become among the top-selling drug classes in the country. It is estimated that in the United States alone, about a quarter of the country suffers from acid related conditions. Their versatility and popularity have prompted the World Health Organization to add PPIs to their list of essential medications. The low cost of PPIs and over the counter (OTC) availability of these medications have made their use ubiquitous in outpatient care.
Cellular components are attractive targets for antiviral therapy because they do not mutate as readily as do viral proteins do [1-3]. The identification of CCR5 as an HIV-1 coreceptor [4-7], facilitated by the discovery of the antiviral activities of CCR5 ligand ?-chemokines , resulted in the development of new viral entry inhibitors to block CCR5 binding, including both- small molecules and CCR5 antibodies
The immune system is essential to host defense because it senses attacking pathogens and elicits protective immune responses. Although immune responses can protect against pathogens, uncontrolled immune responses cause tissue damage and other pathological consequences through their inflammatory mediators.
Tumor immunity and immunotherapy have become increasingly important in treatment strategies for a variety of malignancies including advanced triple negative breast cancer.
Bladder cancer is one of the most common and expensive cancers in the United States, with an expected 81,400 new cases and 17,980 deaths in 2020 alone. The incidence is increased among white men and diagnoses often occur in the 7th decade of life.
Toward Integrated Genomic Diagnosis in Routine Diagnostic Pathology by the World Health Organization Classification of Acute Myeloid Leukemia
Significant milestones and seminal discoveries during 1674-1966, by individuals who have made crucial contributions toward progress in the diagnosis of hematologic neoplasms as we understand today are depicted chronologically. It is notable that the path to progress in the understanding of disease and neoplasms initially took centuries for significant discoveries (17th-18th centuries), and subsequently, many decades (19th-20th centuries) for a breakthrough or a change from the prevailing norm.
Improved Wound Closure Rates and Mechanical Properties Resembling Native Skin in Murine Diabetic Wounds Treated with a Tropoelastin and Collagen Wound Healing Device
Chronic, non-healing, or slow to heal wounds present a significant and growing health problem in the United States, with an estimated 6.5 million people affected, at an annual cost of US $20 billion, with the highest risk groups represented by the elderly and the increasing prevalence of lifestyle diseases such as diabetes and obesity.
Clinical and Histological Proof that Surgical Incisions along Skin Folding Lines Result in Optimal Scars
In an early publication, we could show that striae distensae always develop perpendicular to the skin tension lines. In another article, we demonstrated that virtual skin tension lines are identical to the obvious Main Folding Lines; we recommended their use as optimal directions for orthopedic incisions, when inconspicuous scar formation is a prerequisite, as in children, younger adults, and women.
Unmasking the Master of Disguise: Defining Advancements in Diagnosis of Intravascular Large B-cell Lymphoma
Intravascular B cell lymphoma (IVBCL) is notoriously difficult to diagnose as the clinical manifestations are protean, and the patterns seen with routine labs and imaging are non-specific. Furthermore, the disease follows an aggressive course and is often fatal within a matter of weeks to months from symptom onset, unless recognized and treated appropriately. This has historically meant that diagnosis was made at autopsy for many patients. Over the past few decades, however, scientific and clinical literature have slowly accumulated to better characterize and raise clinical awareness of this disease. In this paper, we will review the characteristics that make this diagnosis challenging, and then discuss new and emerging diagnostic avenues.
Human body implants are rapidly covered by a conditioning film (which contains the biochemical moieties) when they interact with human body fluids and its components. This surface-bound biochemical blend elicits a chemotactic response to attract bacteria that are transmitted through infection or by contamination.
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