Volume 2, Issue 4, p143-178
Articles published in this issue are Open Access and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY NC) where the readers can reuse, download, distribute the article in whole or part by mentioning proper credits to the authors.
Stroke is the second largest cause of death worldwide, with a world annual mortality incidence of about 5.5 million people, and it is also the leading cause of disability worldwide with 50% of survivors being chronically disabled.J Exp Neurol, 2021, Volume 2, Issue 4, p143-148 | DOI: 10.33696/Neurol.2.047
Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) and Alzheimer’s Disease-Related Dementias (ADRD) are debilitating conditions that are highly associated with aging populations, especially those with comorbidities such as diabetes and hypertension.J Exp Neurol, 2021, Volume 2, Issue 4, p149-153 | DOI: 10.33696/Neurol.2.048
Comparison of Different Post-Processing Algorithms for Dynamic Susceptibility Contrast Perfusion Imaging of Multiple Sclerosis Lesions: A Time to Peak Analysis
The purpose of the present study was to evaluate, in multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions, the diagnostic performance of two different commercial post-processing MR perfusion software. These two different algorithms for processing Dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) perfusion images have been used to differentiate perfusion values among white matter (WM) lesions, normal appearing white matter (NAWM), and grey matter (GM) in MS.J Exp Neurol, 2021, Volume 2, Issue 4, p154-161 | DOI: 10.33696/Neurol.2.049
Opioid addiction is classified as a substance use disorder (SUD), a complex and chronic health condition with physical, social, and psychological consequences. While there is no cure for it, we present a novel approach towards preventing a hallmark feature of addiction-- the opiate withdrawal syndrome. Opioids exert numerous effects, acutely and chronically, on the nervous system with physical dependence, tolerance, and withdrawal being the most adverse chronic features.J Exp Neurol, 2021, Volume 2, Issue 4, p162-172 | DOI: 10.33696/Neurol.2.050
Prevention of ischemic stroke is one of the most important issues in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Currently, most patients are managed satisfactorily with oral anticoagulant (OAC) therapy. The remaining patients, who cannot tolerate long-term systemic OAC or who have an excess thrombotic burden that cannot be adequately controlled by OAC alone, require local anti-thrombotic therapy such as left atrial appendage (LAA) mechanical exclusion, either by surgical excision or percutaneous closure device implantation.J Exp Neurol, 2021, Volume 2, Issue 4, p173-176 | DOI: 10.33696/Neurol.2.051
Twenty-five percent of small molecules in drug development for CNS indications fail in clinical trials due to complications with neurotoxicity. Unfortunately, this is not discovered earlier. Indeed, it is very infrequent that a drug is flagged for neurotoxic side effects in early drug discovery (1). The consequences are two-fold: 1) loss of time and money in bringing new drugs to market and, 2) the unwitting exposure of patents in clinical trials to the neurotoxic side effects of what otherwise could be a drug candidate that is effectively treating the problem.J Exp Neurol, 2021, Volume 2, Issue 4, p177-178 | DOI: 10.33696/Neurol.2.052
The nature of gene mutations induced by ionizing radiation in germ cells and transmitted to offspring remains one of the most important problems in radiation genetics of higher eukaryotes. The data accumulated in this field were obtained by different authors under different experimental conditions which does not give a complete insight about the nature of radiation-induced inherited mutations at different genome levels (chromosome, gene, DNA).
Although NK cells are recognized as effector lymphocytes of the innate immune system, they also regulate the adaptive immune response by releasing inflammatory cytokines and developing immunological memory. Unlike other lymphocytes such as T or B cells, NK cells do not express rearrangeable, antigen-specific receptors.
Proton minibeam radiotherapy (pMBRT) is an external beam radiotherapy method with reduced side effects by taking advantage of spatial fractionation in the normal tissue. Due to scattering, the delivered small beams widen in the tissue ensuring a homogeneous dose distribution in the tumor. In this review, the physical and biological principles regarding dose distribution and healing effects are explained. In the last decade, several preclinical studies have been conducted addressing normal tissue sparing and tumor control in-vitro and in-vivo, using human skin tissue and mouse or rat models. The major results acquired in these studies are summarized. A further newly emerging therapy method is FLASH radiotherapy, i.e. the treatment using ultra-high dose rates. The possibility of combining these methods in proton minibeam FLASH therapy (pMB FLASH) is worked out. Additionally, technical feasibility and limitations will be discussed by looking at simulations as well as preclinical studies and also pointing out new ways of delivering the desired tumor dose, such as interlacing. We will also highlight the opportunities that emerge regarding high dose radiation, hypofractionation and the combination with immunotherapy.
It is now well accepted that the ionizing radiation-generated reactive oxygen species (ROS), that constitute ~2/3 of the effects of external beam radiation, do not only produce direct tumor cell death, but also affect the surrounding microenvironment. Moreover, this indirect effect of radiation may result in systemic effects, specifically the initiation of an inflammatory response.
Angioimmunoblastic T cell lymphoma (AITL) is one of the most common T-cell lymphomas, second only to peripheral T-cell lymphoma not otherwise specified (PTCL-NOS). Initially AITL was considered a non-malignant lymphadenopathy with immune hyperactivation, nowadays being classified as a PTCL.
Since last century, carbon monoxide (CO) generally regarded as “silent killer” and life-threatening for living organisms because of its colourless, odourless and poisonous nature. Haldane explored the poisonous nature of CO can be exerted as car-boxy hemoglobin (COHb) through hemoglobin dissociation parameters
Multidisciplinary Acute Care of Central Retinal Artery Occlusion with a Stroke Paradigm: A Call to Action
Central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) is a painless ophthalmologic emergency with potential for irreversible vision loss. Similar to ischemic stroke, CRAO occurs when there is sudden obstruction of the central retinal artery, leading to ischemic injury to the retina and subsequent cell death. Continuous occlusion and ischemia of the retina progresses to permanent damage to retinal cells and loss of vision.
There are many exciting developments in the field of midlife women’s health which explain how menopause symptoms, particularly hot flashes, may be an important vital sign and predictor of future health status
Internists as well as cardiologists often receive echocardiogram reports which failed to offer a clear definition of the aortic stenosis (AS) severity due to discordant data regarding the aortic valve gradients and the valve area. Sometimes AS appears severe according to the valve area criteria, in spite of the fact that gradients across the valve are not in the severe range.
During the last few decades, immunotherapy is considered to be an important approach to help our immune system to fight various kinds of diseases, such as tumor. Sometimes, it works very well for some types of cancers, for example: bladder cancer, colorectal cancer, breast cancer and lymphoma.
Acute Success and Long-term Follow-up of Catheter Ablation of Isthmus-dependent Atrial Flutter; A Comparison of 10 mm Tip Standard, 6 mm Tip Irrigated Radiofrequency, and Cryotherapy Catheters
Various catheter ablation technologies have evolved to improve the procedural success and safety of cavotricuspid isthmus (CTI) block. Numerous studies have compared the different energy types, catheter tip sizes, and energy settings.
The Role of Direct Oral Anticoagulants in Advanced Chronic Kidney Disease – Questions and Future directions
With the advent of the direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs), patients requiring anticoagulation for common conditions such as atrial fibrillation and venous thromboembolism no longer need to worry about dietary restrictions or regular monitoring of the international normalized ratio which complicated warfarin treatment.
VA-Radiation Oncology Quality Surveillance Program: Enhancing Quality Measure Data Capture, Measuring Quality Benchmarks and Ensuring Long Term Sustainability of Quality Improvements in Community Care
High quality cancer care improves patient survival and quality of life. Radiation plays an important role in cancer management, given that over 50% of all cancer patients receive radiation therapy as either a primary treatment or for palliation. Ensuring quality of radiotherapy specifically, is therefore important to achieving optimal patient outcomes.
The Global Rise of Chronic Diseases: Why Broaden the Paradigm to Include Tick-borne Illness and Environmental Toxin Exposure?
The incidence of chronic diseases is rapidly increasing worldwide. It has been calculated that, in 2001, chronic diseases contributed to approximately 46% of the global burden of disease and 60% of the total reported deaths with that number expected to increase to 57% by 2020, when chronic diseases will account for almost 75% of all deaths worldwide.
HPV 16/18 E6 oncoprotein has been evaluated as a useful biomarker with prognostic abilities as it can detect pre-cancer and cancerous states of cervical cancer progression. A positive E6 assay indicates a high correlation to the cervical cancerous phenotype, not the potential for cervical cancer, thus high specificity in triaging patients during screening. E6 levels of expression associate directly with the severity of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) lesions and the risk of
The gut microbiome or gut flora is a vast community of microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, protozoa, and fungi that inhabit the digestive tract of the human and other animals [1,2]. In the human body, bacterial species colonize into the oral cavity, skin, vagina, and placenta, however, the largest population of microorganisms resides in the intestine.
Nearly 80% of people with diabetes live in low and middle-income countries. It increases healthcare use and expenditure and imposes a huge economic burden on the healthcare systems
Today, cancer is the second leading cause of death, with about 9.6 million deaths globally in 2018 . At the end of the 19th century, Paul Ehrlich contributed a milestone to cancer research by introducing chemotherapy as a promising tumor treatment approach. Since then, cancer treatment has undergone tremendous advances, with chemotherapy still being a widely used cancer treatment method today, however, often associated with severe side effects.
Impact of Estradiol Supplementation during Luteal Phase Support on the In vitro Fertilization Clinical Outcome: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
At present, progesterone administration is widely used. There is no agreement on whether estradiol (E2) addition should be supplement to progesterone (P) as luteal phase support (LPS).
Breast cancer is the second most common cancer worldwide, affecting nearly one in eight women. Accurate cancer staging is essential for determining the patient’s prognosis and for choosing the appropriate treatment.
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