Volume 2, Issue 2, p29-53
Articles published in this issue are Open Access and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY NC) where the readers can reuse, download, distribute the article in whole or part by mentioning proper credits to the authors.
Exosomes are membranous vesicles ranging in size from 30–100 nm in diameter. They are secreted from multiple cell types into the body fluids through exocytosis, a process commonly used for receptor discharge and intercellular communications.Arch Cancer Biol Ther, 2021, Volume 2, Issue 2, p29-34 | DOI: 10.33696/cancerbiology.2.021
This commentary refers to our published article, as highlighted in this article most common gene causing breast cancer in the population living in the United Arab Emirates is BRCA2 followed by BRCA1. This is the first publication discussing about clinical and pathological features of breast cancer in woman with a positive genetic mutation in the United Arab Emirates.Arch Cancer Biol Ther, 2021, Volume 2, Issue 2, p35-36 | DOI: 10.33696/cancerbiology.2.022
Primary small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the urinary bladder is a rare histological type shows poor differentiation and behaves in a highly aggressive manner. It accounts to 0.3- 0.7% of all bladder tumors [1,2]. Neuroendocrine carcinomas predominantly occur in respiratory and gastrointestinal tract and very rarely in the urinary bladder.Arch Cancer Biol Ther, 2021, Volume 2, Issue 2, p37-39 | DOI: 10.33696/cancerbiology.2.023
Molecular Biology for BCR-ABL1 Quantification for Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Monitorization and Evaluation
Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML) is a clonal disorder originated by a pluripotent hematopoietic stem cell, which presents the translocation t(9;22) (q34;q11) in 90% of the cases.Arch Cancer Biol Ther, 2021, Volume 2, Issue 2, p40-42 | DOI: 10.33696/cancerbiology.2.024
The human body is constituted by more than 200 committed cell types , all of which derive from the zygote, a single totipotent cell that divides and differentiates into all the cells of an organism throughout its development. Out of this diversity, we focus our interest here on the epithelial and the mesenchymal cells.Arch Cancer Biol Ther, 2021, Volume 2, Issue 2, p43-49 | DOI: 10.33696/cancerbiology.2.025
Tyrosine kinase-type cell surface receptor HER2- targeted therapies have dramatically improved breast cancer patients’ outcome compared to conventional chemotherapies. In the clinic, HER2 monoclonal antibody trastuzumab with chemotherapy represent the gold standard treatment of HER2-positive breast cancer.Arch Cancer Biol Ther, 2021, Volume 2, Issue 2, p50-53 | DOI: 10.33696/cancerbiology.2.026
Uniportal VATS Lobectomy for Lung Cancer: Feasibility and Cost Effectiveness in a Single Center Experience
In last decades, video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) together with robotic-assisted thoracic surgery (RATS) can be considered the biggest innovation in thoracic surgery. This approach drastically changed the way of performing surgical operations, improving patient’s outcome undergoing thoracic surgery.
Angioimmunoblastic T cell lymphoma (AITL) is one of the most common T-cell lymphomas, second only to peripheral T-cell lymphoma not otherwise specified (PTCL-NOS). Initially AITL was considered a non-malignant lymphadenopathy with immune hyperactivation, nowadays being classified as a PTCL.
Despite the advances in diagnostic and therapeutic field, colorectal cancer (CRC) still remains the third most common cause of death worldwide, with more than 600,000 cancer-related deaths per year.
In a recent paper, we introduced a variant of the classical Simeoni tumor growth model, and illustrated its value in assessing tumor growth in a reproducible mouse model for mammary tumors. Our modification consisted of incorporating delay differential equations in the mathematical formulation of the Simeoni model, to represent the delay in drug action often observed under chemotherapeutic or immunotherapeutic regimens.
Five months into the COVID-19 pandemic, the U.S. death toll from the virus has now surpassed 100,000 people. Many more cases remain nationwide, while an unknown number of patients currently harbor the virus asymptomatically. While health officials are now optimistic regarding the decline in prevalence and number of deaths due to COVID-19 and the possibility of a vaccine by the fall, we cannot lose sight of the bigger picture: the next pandemic.
VA-Radiation Oncology Quality Surveillance Program: Enhancing Quality Measure Data Capture, Measuring Quality Benchmarks and Ensuring Long Term Sustainability of Quality Improvements in Community Care
High quality cancer care improves patient survival and quality of life. Radiation plays an important role in cancer management, given that over 50% of all cancer patients receive radiation therapy as either a primary treatment or for palliation. Ensuring quality of radiotherapy specifically, is therefore important to achieving optimal patient outcomes.
Reduced BCR Signaling and a Metabolic Shift Accompanies Malignant Progression of Follicular Lymphoma: A Lesson from Transcriptomics
Lymphoma represents the most common form of hematological malignancy in the developed world, accounting for 3.6% of all cancers and 55.6% of all blood cancers in Europe, with non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL) representing 90% of cases.
The use of molecular and genomic analysis of a cancer as a means to define a patient-specific treatment is interchangeably referred to as Precision Medicine, Personalized Medicine, or Genomically-directed medicine (herein, collectively PMED).
Synthetic Lethal Drug Combinations Targeting Proteasome and Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors in TP53-Mutated Cancers
Tumors harboring mutations in certain oncogenes are often dependent on activation of certain pathways which becomes essential for the survival of the cancer cells. This condition is formally known as synthetic lethality, a state when simultaneous loss of two genes is lethal to a cancer cell, while the loss of the individual genes is not.
Medullary breast carcinoma (MBC) is a rare tumor, representing 3% to 5% of invasive breast carcinomas. The World Health Organization defines it as a well-circumscribed invasive tumor, composed of poorly differentiated cells, arranged in sheets, without gland formation and a scarce collagen stroma with the presence of a very prominent lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate.
The gut microbiome or gut flora is a vast community of microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, protozoa, and fungi that inhabit the digestive tract of the human and other animals [1,2]. In the human body, bacterial species colonize into the oral cavity, skin, vagina, and placenta, however, the largest population of microorganisms resides in the intestine.
In the last 10 years, the marker “Human Epididymis protein 4 (HE4)” for the management of gynecological tumors has entered powerfully in the world literature. At the moment, carrying out an accurate research in the main scientific portals such as PubMed, we can find more than 2,000 works concerning Cancer antigen-125 (Ca125), but those concerning HE4 are less than 400.
Today, cancer is the second leading cause of death, with about 9.6 million deaths globally in 2018 . At the end of the 19th century, Paul Ehrlich contributed a milestone to cancer research by introducing chemotherapy as a promising tumor treatment approach. Since then, cancer treatment has undergone tremendous advances, with chemotherapy still being a widely used cancer treatment method today, however, often associated with severe side effects.
Influence of Clinical Risk Factors on Outcomes in Men with Stage I Non-Seminomatous Germ Cell Tumor Undergoing Robot-Assisted Retroperitoneal Lymph Node Dissection
Retroperitoneal lymph nodes are often the first landing site of metastatic disease in men with testicular cancer. Primary retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND) for clinical stage I NSGCT can accurately surgically stage patients who may have nodal micrometastases, and in some cases, can serve as the primary therapy when volume of metastasis is low.
Breast cancer is the second most common cancer worldwide, affecting nearly one in eight women. Accurate cancer staging is essential for determining the patient’s prognosis and for choosing the appropriate treatment.
Various types of forces, such as cohesive and adhesive forces, are involved in physical and biological processes. Many of these processes appear to have developmental features through different scales of nature, and such processes may reflect a universal dynamic of accommodation involving the universal dimensional constants
Botulinum toxin (BT) is a potent poisonous neurotoxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum and related species . Its action consists of inhibiting neuromuscular junctions by blocking the release of acetylcholine and desensitizing sensory nerves.
Cervix uteri carcinoma is the most common gynecological cancer worldwide. In addition, it is the fourth most common malignancy and the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death in women . The most common histopathological subtype is squamous cell carcinoma (85%).
Cancer cells reprogram their nutrition metabolism to meet their high bioenergetic and biosynthetic demands in support of rapid growth and continuous proliferation . Both glycolysis and glutaminolysis are altered in cancer cells.
Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer related death in the United States with mortality rates surpassing breast, prostate, brain, and colorectal cancers combined. Recent data shows that susceptibility for both men and women for developing invasive lung and bronchogenic carcinoma peak after the age of 70 years.