Volume 2, Issue 4, p106-120
Articles published in this issue are Open Access and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY NC) where the readers can reuse, download, distribute the article in whole or part by mentioning proper credits to the authors.
2-Year-Old boy with normal birth and developmental history, presented to pediatrician for rapidly progressive swelling in the neck, abdomen and eye. The patient initially was noted to have lymphadenopathy in the cervical region with monocytosis on blood counts. Accordingly, the patient was prescribed antibiotics and was asked to re-visit after one week. During the visit after a week lymphadenopathy was noted to increase on the second visit, with new lymphadenopathies noted in the axillary region and swelling around the eyes. On general examination the patient was in distress due to pain with bilateral cervical, axillary lymphadenopathy, upper and lower limb ecchymosis and bilateral ocular swelling, more prominent in the right side, with patient unable to close the eyes.J Clin Haematol, 2021, Volume 2, Issue 4, p106-110 | DOI: 10.33696/haematology.2.037
BeEAM Conditioning for Autologous Transplant in Lymphoma: A Review of the Evidence, Safety and Efficacy
The ground-breaking PARMA and CORAL trials have substantiated high dose chemotherapy (HDCT) and autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) as standard of care in the treatment of chemosensitive and relapsed Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma (NHL). Additionally, the regimen has proven effective in the treatment of relapsed and resistant Hodgkin’s Lymphoma (HL). Globally, carmustine (BCNU), etoposide, cytarabine and melphalan (BEAM) has been the most widely used conditioning regimen of the past 30 years. BEAM conditioning is generally well-tolerated and effective, with the most common toxicity being oral and gastrointestinal mucositis. Despite this, some transplant centres have transitioned from BEAM HDCT to a newer regiment referred to as BeEAM, which replaces BCNU for bendamustine. The movement appears to be primarily driven by a worldwide scarcity of BCNU, which has led to affordability issues. This dramatic rise in drug cost is not insignificant. Between 2013 and 2015, the price of BCNU increased from $200 (CAD) / 100 mg vial to $4,965.14 (CAD) / 100 mg vial.J Clin Haematol, 2021, Volume 2, Issue 4, p111-114 | DOI: 10.33696/haematology.2.038
With the development of immune therapy, the role of immune monitoring during treatments has been emphasized. Flow cytometry is the best method for immune status monitoring because of its characteristic of multi-parameter analysis. To broadly monitor immune status, we established and validated a multi-color comprehensive panel of 29 antibodies to cover 90 immune cell subsets and the research work was published in the issue of ILSH recently. The article reported that the clinical applications of 10-color flow cytometry to monitor the immune status of patients before or after clinical treatments in 2 ml whole blood samples.J Clin Haematol, 2021, Volume 2, Issue 4, p115-116 | DOI: 10.33696/haematology.2.039
In hemodialysis therapy for end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) patients, blood and dialysate are brought into contact through the dialysis membrane to remove waste products and excess water. When blood contacts the dialysis membrane, blood cells, coagulation system, fibrinolysis system, kallikrein system, and complement system are activated. Therefore, dialysis membranes with excellent blood compatibility must be chosen to avoid such reactions to occur. In this article, we review blood compatibilities of each dialysis membrane material.J Clin Haematol, 2021, Volume 2, Issue 4, p117-120 | DOI: 10.33696/haematology.2.040
Although NK cells are recognized as effector lymphocytes of the innate immune system, they also regulate the adaptive immune response by releasing inflammatory cytokines and developing immunological memory. Unlike other lymphocytes such as T or B cells, NK cells do not express rearrangeable, antigen-specific receptors.
Angioimmunoblastic T cell lymphoma (AITL) is one of the most common T-cell lymphomas, second only to peripheral T-cell lymphoma not otherwise specified (PTCL-NOS). Initially AITL was considered a non-malignant lymphadenopathy with immune hyperactivation, nowadays being classified as a PTCL.
Internists as well as cardiologists often receive echocardiogram reports which failed to offer a clear definition of the aortic stenosis (AS) severity due to discordant data regarding the aortic valve gradients and the valve area. Sometimes AS appears severe according to the valve area criteria, in spite of the fact that gradients across the valve are not in the severe range.
During the last few decades, immunotherapy is considered to be an important approach to help our immune system to fight various kinds of diseases, such as tumor. Sometimes, it works very well for some types of cancers, for example: bladder cancer, colorectal cancer, breast cancer and lymphoma.
The Role of Direct Oral Anticoagulants in Advanced Chronic Kidney Disease – Questions and Future directions
With the advent of the direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs), patients requiring anticoagulation for common conditions such as atrial fibrillation and venous thromboembolism no longer need to worry about dietary restrictions or regular monitoring of the international normalized ratio which complicated warfarin treatment.
In January 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) classified COVID-19 to be a Public Health Emergency of International Concern and declared it a pandemic on March 11, 2020 . Over one hundred and eighty-five million people have been infected by SARS-CoV-2 and roughly four million have died worldwide so far
Ultrasounds are acoustic vibrations that are not perceived by the human ear as their frequency is greater than 20,000 Hz. They are artificially generated by the action of the electric current, whose polarity is periodically reversed, on a quartz crystal, subjecting it, by the action of the electromagnetic field created, to successive contractions and expansions. This alternation of movements generates vibrations, which, transmitted to cellular and intercellular structures, cause collisions and generate heat.
Reduced BCR Signaling and a Metabolic Shift Accompanies Malignant Progression of Follicular Lymphoma: A Lesson from Transcriptomics
Lymphoma represents the most common form of hematological malignancy in the developed world, accounting for 3.6% of all cancers and 55.6% of all blood cancers in Europe, with non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL) representing 90% of cases.
The gut microbiome or gut flora is a vast community of microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, protozoa, and fungi that inhabit the digestive tract of the human and other animals [1,2]. In the human body, bacterial species colonize into the oral cavity, skin, vagina, and placenta, however, the largest population of microorganisms resides in the intestine.
Breast cancer is the second most common cancer worldwide, affecting nearly one in eight women. Accurate cancer staging is essential for determining the patient’s prognosis and for choosing the appropriate treatment.
Diagnosis is a process that identifies, explains, or establishes the individual’s disease from its symptoms and signs. Early and precise diagnosis is crucial since it influences the efficacy of treatment and avoids longterm complications for the infected person. Further, in the case of infectious diseases, undiagnosed patients can transmit the disease to a healthy population unknowingly. Besides, most of the diseases evolve with the time that significantly affects the clinical outcomes.
Primary small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the urinary bladder is a rare histological type shows poor differentiation and behaves in a highly aggressive manner. It accounts to 0.3- 0.7% of all bladder tumors [1,2]. Neuroendocrine carcinomas predominantly occur in respiratory and gastrointestinal tract and very rarely in the urinary bladder.
The term paraduodenal pancreatitis and groove pancreatitis are today used interchangeably, with all conditions having similar manifestations; they refer to an uncommon and still under-recognized form of recurrent or chronic pancreatitis that affects the so-called groove. The groove represents the potential space between the head of the pancreas, medially and the second part of the duodenum, laterally. It is bordered by the duodenal bulb and the third part of the duodenum in the superior and posteroinferior aspects, respectively. The inferior vena cava also forms the posterior aspect. Distal common bile duct (CBD), ampulla, major and minor papilla, superior pancreaticoduodenal vessels and lymphatics, as well as some lymph nodes, are anatomically present in the groove.
In 2020 we published a series of 18 patients who underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) and vaginal radical trachelectomy (VRT) as a fertility sparing alternative in stage 1B2 cervical cancer.
The immune system developed certain checks and balance to control or inhibit the reactivity against normal cells of the body. Uncontrolled immune responses to the non-self entities such as bacteria, viruses, parasites, or mutated self-antigens can cause an inflammatory reaction and autoimmune diseases.
Cancer nanomedicine was originally developed for more efficient delivery of chemotherapeutic agents into tumor, and has been extensively employed as a therapeutic for cancer treatment owing to its unique features in drug delivery, diagnosis and imaging, as well as the therapeutic nature of some nanomaterials themselves.
Cells of the innate and adaptive arm of the immune system including macrophages, natural killer (NK) cells, neutrophils, T cells, and B cells, etc. are crucial for the maintenance of the body’s homeostatic balance and prevention of multiple diseases including cancer.
COVID-19 Rapid Diagnostic Test Results and their Associations with Certain Factors Among the Residents of Balochistan
This paper analyses any possible association of various factors like gender, last COVID-19 PCR test results, BCG Vaccination, Seasonal Flu vaccination, occupation and confirmed case contact history with COVID-19 RDT results of the participants.
COVID-19, a global pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) has resulted in hospitalization in many cases.
Axiography allows the three-dimensional study of condylar movements in the perspective of diagnosis of cranio-mandibular dysfunctions (CMD) and real adjustment of the semi-adaptable articulator. Conceived by Cammpion in 1902, Robert Lee was responsible for updating this principle of study.
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