Volume 3, Issue 1, p1-36
Articles published in this issue are Open Access and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY NC) where the readers can reuse, download, distribute the article in whole or part by mentioning proper credits to the authors.
Oral Lactulose – A Safe and Effective Strategy for the Management of Constipation in Individuals with Impaired Glucose Tolerance and Diabetes
Gastrointestinal (GI) disorders are common, also in persons with diabetes mellitus (DM), and can substantially impact their quality of life. In a representative sample of adults living in the United States, 25.8% of individuals with DM also reported disordered bowel habits and 14.6% experienced chronic constipation . Others have reported an even higher prevalence of constipation of around 30% among patients with DM. While, in some patients, symptoms can be relieved with lifestyle and dietary modifications, many individuals with DM rely on the regular use of laxatives for the managementArch Gastroenterol Res, 2022, Volume 3, Issue 1, p1-8 | DOI: 10.33696/Gastroenterology.3.036
Although gastrointestinal stromal tumors, GISTs, are the most common neoplasms arising from the gastrointestinal mesenchyme, they represent less than 1% of all digestive tumors. Its incidence has increased in recent years, probably due to improved diagnostic methods. It is currently known that GIST is the most common sarcoma. It originates from interstitial cells of Cajal and depends on the transcription factor ETV-1. These are neoplasms associated with molecular alterations and some mutations.Arch Gastroenterol Res, 2022, Volume 3, Issue 1, p9-17 | DOI: 10.33696/Gastroenterology.3.037
The intestinal microbiota creates a bodily barrier for invading pathogen by using aggressive exclusion. Pathogens and immune cells can interact directly and dynamically with symbiotic bacteria, determining the pathophysiology and outcome of an infection. They can defend the host through a variety of processes, including attachment site occupancy, nutrition intake, metabolite competition, and the synthesis of antimicrobial compounds including bacteriocins that influence pathogen survival (a process referred to as colonization resistance).Arch Gastroenterol Res, 2022, Volume 3, Issue 1, p18-22 | DOI: 10.33696/Gastroenterology.3.038
Although the prevalence of gastric cancer is decreasing in many developed nations, it is the fourth most prevalent cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths globally. Around 8 percent of recently diagnosed malignant tumors are stomach cancer, more than 7,00,000 individuals die from gastric cancer yearly. Despite extensive research into new diagnostic and therapeutic methods, the prognosis for individuals with advanced stomach cancer remains dismal, and survival rates have hardly improved. In recent years, many latest innovations have improved our understanding of the molecular mechanisms and modifications that contribute to gastric cancer’s beginning and progression, including several genetic and molecular modifications and mutations.Arch Gastroenterol Res, 2022, Volume 3, Issue 1, p23-26 | DOI: 10.33696/Gastroenterology.3.039
Intraductal Tubular Adenoma: A Case Report and Diagnostic Algorithm for Intraductal Pancreatic Lesions
Intraductal lesions of the pancreas are an increasingly recognized, radiologically detectable group of entities that require a systematic diagnostic approach to best define management given their variable prognoses. A case of isolated intraductal tubular adenoma (ITA) is reported with a comprehensive literature review; comparison of ITAs with intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) and intraductal tubular carcinomas (ITCs) is made with assessment of their distinctive imaging and histological findings and discussion of the evolution of these lesions’ classifications with regards to the established literature.Arch Gastroenterol Res, 2022, Volume 3, Issue 1, p27-36 | DOI: 10.33696/Gastroenterology.3.040
Although NK cells are recognized as effector lymphocytes of the innate immune system, they also regulate the adaptive immune response by releasing inflammatory cytokines and developing immunological memory. Unlike other lymphocytes such as T or B cells, NK cells do not express rearrangeable, antigen-specific receptors.
During the last few decades, immunotherapy is considered to be an important approach to help our immune system to fight various kinds of diseases, such as tumor. Sometimes, it works very well for some types of cancers, for example: bladder cancer, colorectal cancer, breast cancer and lymphoma.
Patients of all ages with motor disorders expect highquality assessments and evidence- based treatment . In university hospitals, alongside medical training and treatment of patients, research  is an integral part of the skills for medical professionals e.g. doctors, nurses, occupational therapists and physiotherapists.
The gut microbiome or gut flora is a vast community of microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, protozoa, and fungi that inhabit the digestive tract of the human and other animals [1,2]. In the human body, bacterial species colonize into the oral cavity, skin, vagina, and placenta, however, the largest population of microorganisms resides in the intestine.
It gives us great pleasure to introduce readers with our international peer-reviewed, open access journal. Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation is devoted to publish original research, reviews, and clinical reports on key areas of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation and related fields.
Molecular Detection of Plasmid - Mediated Quinolone Resistant Genes in Uropathogenic E. coli from Tertiary Referral Hospital in Tehran , Iran
Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) due to Escherichia coli is the most common bacterial infection. Fluoroquinolones are commonly used for the treatment of UTI because isolated microorganisms are frequently resistant to aminopenicillins and trimethoprim- sulfamethoxazole and fluoroquinolones are given orally .
Intentional facial expression of emotion named facial mimic is critical to healthy social interactions. Psychological and functional implications of the facial paralysis present a devastating management problem to patients afflicted because their face have an important challenge of facial muscles that are fundamental also for affective communication.
Breast cancer is the second most common cancer worldwide, affecting nearly one in eight women. Accurate cancer staging is essential for determining the patient’s prognosis and for choosing the appropriate treatment.
However, the entire coagulation cascade is dysfunctional, in progressed chronic diabetes and cancer patients.
Gastric cancer (GC), also known as stomach cancer, is a worldwide health problem. Anatomically, it can occur from the gastroesophageal junction to distal portions of the stomach. Considering both sexes, worldwide, it is the 5th most common neoplasm (5.7%) and the 3rd cause of mortality among malignancies, leading to approximately 782,000 deaths in 2018. The incidence varies geographically but 50% of new cases are diagnosed in developed countries. High incidence is observed in Asia, Latin America, and in the central and eastern parts of Europe. There are several ways to classify GC, but the most used is Lauren’s Classification, which proposes two main histological groups: intestinal and diffuse. This classification is important because there are marked etiological, pathological, and epidemiological differences between the subgroups, guiding the clinical approach for each patient.
The COVID-19 pandemic has provoked a global, rapid increase of cases due to the high infectivity of the etiological agent, COVID-19 virus. In February 2021, over 110 million confirmed COVID-19 cases with 1 million deaths were reported worldwide (www.who.int).
How Traditional Healers Diagnose and Treat Diabetes Mellitus in the Pretoria Mamelodi Area and How Do These Purported Medications Comply with Complementary and Alternative Medicine Regulations
CAM is widely used by patients to treat and prevent certain diseases, providing emotional and physical support . The National Centre for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) defines CAM as a “group of diverse medical and health care systems, practices, and products that are not presently considered to be part of conventional medicine” .
Modern Rehabilitation Strategies of Post-Stroke Motor Disfunctions: Functional Electrical Stimulation and Biofeedback-Stabilometric Postural Training
More than 80% of patients after a stroke have limited daily activity due to a complex polymorphic motor deficiency of various nature and severity, which leads to postural disorders (PD) . Because of paresis, develops different changes in the musculoskeletal system (MSS) such as PD, restrictions of movements in the joints, impaired
Continuous spikes during slow wave sleep (CSWS) syndrome is an age-related and self-limited severe epileptic encephalopathy characterized by electrical status epilepticus in sleep (ESES) on electroencephalogram, seizures, and developmental regression
Since December 2019, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) caused by 2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) has resulted in 89,000 cases of Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), formerly known as Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia (NCP) in China, including 2,450 deaths.
In the past two decades great interest has developed for less-invasive, percutaneous mitral valve (MV) repair strategies. This is mainly due to the increasing number of elderly patients with comorbidities and/or patients with left ventricular (LV) dysfunction, that are associated with a high surgical risk.
In 2020 we published a series of 18 patients who underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) and vaginal radical trachelectomy (VRT) as a fertility sparing alternative in stage 1B2 cervical cancer.
The immune system developed certain checks and balance to control or inhibit the reactivity against normal cells of the body. Uncontrolled immune responses to the non-self entities such as bacteria, viruses, parasites, or mutated self-antigens can cause an inflammatory reaction and autoimmune diseases.
Cancer nanomedicine was originally developed for more efficient delivery of chemotherapeutic agents into tumor, and has been extensively employed as a therapeutic for cancer treatment owing to its unique features in drug delivery, diagnosis and imaging, as well as the therapeutic nature of some nanomaterials themselves.
Prevalence of diabetes is increasing. Diabetes is more prevalent in the socially deprived, ethnic minority population (based on continuing rise in elderly population, growing obesity and BME groups). Compliance is a major stumbling block in the management of most long-term conditions including diabetes.
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