The Colon has a complicated microbial community, which is indispensable for retaining homeostasis and regulation of metabolic functions, assisting the intestinal barrier, and controlling immune responses. Preceding research has supported a connection between colorectal cancers (CRC) and intestinal microbiota. In light of these findings, the existing assessment analyzed the several interactions that appear between microbiota and CRC, beginning from the position of intestinal microbiota in colonic homeostasis. In addition, fundamental metabolic elements such as bile acids and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are covered in CRC pathogenesis. Different pathogenic pathways have been announced amongst distinct CRC areas (proximal or distal). Differences in the microbial populations are advised among the CRC from these colonic areas, perchance reflecting the bacterial dysbiosis and biofilm distribution. Regarding the therapeutic approach in CRC, the intestinal microbiota is similarly concerned with the modulation of the host response to chemotherapeutic drugs (5-fluorouracil and irinotecan) through the involvement with drug efficacy and by related toxicity and adverse effects. Moreover, the latest study on CRC immunotherapy exhibits an essential interaction between the immune system and intestinal microbiota, which incorporates the opportunity of focusing on microbiota for the improvement of anticancer treatment. Additional research will further make clear the interplay between CRC and microbiota, ensuing in the expansion of possible therapeutic techniques via manipulating microbiota composition.
Immunotherapy, Intestinal Microbiota, Pathogenesis, Chemotherapy