Volume 3, Issue 4, p177-205
Articles published in this issue are Open Access and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY NC) where the readers can reuse, download, distribute the article in whole or part by mentioning proper credits to the authors.
Therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAb) have the potential to treat a wide range of various diseases and disorders including cancer, chronic autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, allergies, infections, transplantations, and cardiovascular diseases.J Cancer Immunol, 2021, Volume 3, Issue 4, p177-182 | DOI: 10.33696/cancerimmunol.3.054
In 1989, researchers proposed an intricate strategy in the field of adoptive cell therapy (ACT). Using the T-cell receptor (TCR) as a template, they replaced the coding sequence for the Vα and Vβ chains with the antigen- recognition domains from an antibody (VH and VL chains).J Cancer Immunol, 2021, Volume 3, Issue 4, p183-187 | DOI: 10.33696/cancerimmunol.3.055
Biomarkers of Pembrolizumab Efficacy in First-Line Advanced PD-L1 ≥ 50% Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. In 2020, a total of 19 million cancer patients were diagnosed, of which 11.4% were lung cancer, causing 18% of all cancer deaths. In 2020 in Spain, 29,638 cases were estimated.J Cancer Immunol, 2021, Volume 3, Issue 4, p188-195 | DOI: 10.33696/cancerimmunol.3.056
Chronic lymphoid leukemia (CLL) is a malignant hematological disease characterized by the accumulation of mature lymphocytes with a defect in the induction of apoptosis that massively accumulate in peripheral blood (PB), bone marrow (BM) and lymphoid tissues.J Cancer Immunol, 2021, Volume 3, Issue 4, p196-205 | DOI: 10.33696/cancerimmunol.3.057
Karyotypic Profile of Chronic Myeloid Leukemia in Patients Diagnosed at Tertiary Level in Afghanistan
Balanced translocation resulting in fusion of the Abelson gene (ABL1) from chromosome 9q34 with the breakpoint cluster region (BCR) gene on chromosome 22q11.2 is the pathognomonic molecular driver of CML. The resulting BCRABL 1 fusion gene is both the diagnostic as well as therapeutic target of CML. The first agent with tyrosine kinase inhibitor activity that was licenced in 2000 for treatment of CML patients, was Imatinib, gradually followed by multiple agents with higher efficacy.
Prevalence of Symptom Clusters in Cancer Patients at First Presentation in Palliative Care Clinic as per Different Disease Groups
Cancer has its own disease burden and patients usually suffer from symptom clusters when they are referred for palliative treatment. Identification of symptom cluster trajectories will help clinician to take into account measures that can optimize quality of life of palliative patients. Therefore the aim of this paper is to determine the overall prevalence of symptoms and symptoms clusters in different disease groups according to etiology at the time of first visit to Palliative care clinic by using HIS Palliative First Assessment note indicating Edmonton symptom scale.
Although NK cells are recognized as effector lymphocytes of the innate immune system, they also regulate the adaptive immune response by releasing inflammatory cytokines and developing immunological memory. Unlike other lymphocytes such as T or B cells, NK cells do not express rearrangeable, antigen-specific receptors.
Ketamine has long been used in the field of anesthesia . Its rapid and long-acting analgesic effects associated with its dissociative properties have also established its use in prehospital and emergency department patients.
Gender Disparities in Outcomes Following Pulmonary Embolism Treatment in the Intensive Care Unit; A Multi-center Retrospective Cohort Study
Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a blockage of blood flow in the pulmonary artery bed that can result in a life-threatening and potentially reversible right ventricular failure . PE remains one of the leading causes of poor prognosis and death, particularly when a shock or right ventricular failure occurs . According to studies, PE is generally manifested in a nonspecific manner
Multidisciplinary Acute Care of Central Retinal Artery Occlusion with a Stroke Paradigm: A Call to Action
Central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) is a painless ophthalmologic emergency with potential for irreversible vision loss. Similar to ischemic stroke, CRAO occurs when there is sudden obstruction of the central retinal artery, leading to ischemic injury to the retina and subsequent cell death. Continuous occlusion and ischemia of the retina progresses to permanent damage to retinal cells and loss of vision.
Rituximab is a chimeric (20% rodent and 80% human) monoclonal antibody that binds to the CD20 antigen present on the cell surface and leads to depletion of mature B-cells [1,2]. It is the first approved monoclonal antibody to be used in the therapy of indolent B-cell non- Hodgkin’s lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia
VA-Radiation Oncology Quality Surveillance Program: Enhancing Quality Measure Data Capture, Measuring Quality Benchmarks and Ensuring Long Term Sustainability of Quality Improvements in Community Care
High quality cancer care improves patient survival and quality of life. Radiation plays an important role in cancer management, given that over 50% of all cancer patients receive radiation therapy as either a primary treatment or for palliation. Ensuring quality of radiotherapy specifically, is therefore important to achieving optimal patient outcomes.
The differential diagnosis of a mediastinal mass includes benign and malignant etiologies like lymphomas, thymic tumors, thyroid goiter, infections such as tuberculosis, chronic granulomatous disorders such as sarcoidosis, germ cell tumors, among others. Based on its location, they can be classified as anterior, medium or posterior.
Liver fibrosis is a reversible wound-healing response in which a variety of cells and factors are involved in and results in excessive deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM). Cirrhosis is one of the significant causes of portal hypertension and end-stage liver disease, and it is the 14th most common cause of death around the world. Approximately 1.03 million people worldwide die from liver cirrhosis every year.
There is growing body of literature to identify novel prognostic markers in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), including serum ferritin (SF), transferrin levels, alfa fetoprotein (AFP), and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR). Chronic inflammation and fibrogenesis are considered quite essential in the oncogenesis of HCC. The trigger for this inflammation could range from viral hepatitis, alcoholic cirrhosis, to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Also, iron overload as in hereditary hemochromatosis is linked to one of the factors for HCC oncogenesis.
Medullary breast carcinoma (MBC) is a rare tumor, representing 3% to 5% of invasive breast carcinomas. The World Health Organization defines it as a well-circumscribed invasive tumor, composed of poorly differentiated cells, arranged in sheets, without gland formation and a scarce collagen stroma with the presence of a very prominent lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate.
Cancer is a worldwide public health issue that affects millions of people every year. In 2018 there were 17 million newly documented cases of cancer globally (8.8 million in men and 8.2 million in women), leading to 9.6 million deaths. Cancer is a vastly heterogeneous disease, with over 100 different types of cancer currently identified in humans; the most common types of cancer are lung, female breast, bowel and prostate, these four types account for more than 40% of all new cancer case
Today, cancer is the second leading cause of death, with about 9.6 million deaths globally in 2018 . At the end of the 19th century, Paul Ehrlich contributed a milestone to cancer research by introducing chemotherapy as a promising tumor treatment approach. Since then, cancer treatment has undergone tremendous advances, with chemotherapy still being a widely used cancer treatment method today, however, often associated with severe side effects.
Breast cancer is the second most common cancer worldwide, affecting nearly one in eight women. Accurate cancer staging is essential for determining the patient’s prognosis and for choosing the appropriate treatment.
Various types of forces, such as cohesive and adhesive forces, are involved in physical and biological processes. Many of these processes appear to have developmental features through different scales of nature, and such processes may reflect a universal dynamic of accommodation involving the universal dimensional constants
Safety and Efficacy of s-MOX Regimen in Patients with Colorectal Cancer Who Developed Cardiotoxicity Following Fluoropyrimidine Administration: A Case Series
5-fluorouracil (5-FU), an antimetabolite in the fluoropyrimidine class, is the third most commonly used chemotherapeutic agent worldwide for the treatment of solid malignancies . Despite advances in novel cancer therapies, commonly used in combination with fluoropyrimidines, 5-FU remains one of the most effective and safe chemotherapy agents to manage colorectal cancer (CRC).
Cervix uteri carcinoma is the most common gynecological cancer worldwide. In addition, it is the fourth most common malignancy and the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death in women . The most common histopathological subtype is squamous cell carcinoma (85%).
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a heart muscle disorder and is the most common form of Mendelianinherited heart disease, affecting approximately 0.2% of the global population. In adults the disease is often inherited as an autosomal dominant trait caused by mutations, mainly in one of the 23 cardiac sarcomere protein genes.
Diagnosis is a process that identifies, explains, or establishes the individual’s disease from its symptoms and signs. Early and precise diagnosis is crucial since it influences the efficacy of treatment and avoids longterm complications for the infected person. Further, in the case of infectious diseases, undiagnosed patients can transmit the disease to a healthy population unknowingly. Besides, most of the diseases evolve with the time that significantly affects the clinical outcomes.
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