Introduction: Chronic lymphoid leukemia (CLL) is a malignant proliferative disorder of incompetent mature-looking lymphocytes that accumulate in peripheral blood (PB), bone marrow (BM) and lymphoid tissues. Currently, the flow cytometry (FC) technique has demonstrated its great utility in the immunophenotypic classification of this entity.
Objective: To characterize the CLL immunophenotype.
Methods: A descriptive, cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the cellular immunophenotype of samples from BM and PB from 64 patients with CLL using the FC technique at the Institute of Hematology and Immunology, during the period 2018-2020. Monoclonal antibodies directed against B and T lymphoid differentiation antigens were used. The reading was performed on a GALLIOS, Beckman Coulter cytometer and the data obtained were analyzed using the Kaluza computer program.
Results: Out of the total patients studied, 28 were male and 36 were female. The most frequently expressed antigens were: CD45 (100%), CD19 (98.4%), CD5 (95.3%) and CD23 (79.7%). Women showed high expression of CD5 and CD5/CD19 (42.2%) in relation to men. The CD19+/CD20+ combination was statistically significant. There was low expression of CD38 (12.5%) and the prognostic marker CD49d predominated.
Conclusions: Cell immunophenotyping proved to be a useful procedure to confirm the clinical and morphological diagnosis of CLL, which has a heterogeneous antigenic expression pattern.
Immunophenotype, Chronic lymphoid leukemia, Flow cytometry