Addiction is defined as being a primary chronic disease of the brain reward, motivation, and memory in this complex circuitry. A dysfunction in this complex circuitry can lead to certain manifestations in an individual . The individual who suffers from addiction does not have the ability to abstain from this harmful pursuit and, as a result,
Like many other healthcare professionals who have contributed so much to the healing arts and sciences, Dr. Jonathan Hutchinson was a keen and astute observer of the human condition. Dr. Hutchinson was a 19th century surgeon who practiced in London. Hutchinson also served as president of the Royal College of Surgeons .
Axiography allows the three-dimensional study of condylar movements in the perspective of diagnosis of cranio-mandibular dysfunctions (CMD) and real adjustment of the semi-adaptable articulator. Conceived by Cammpion in 1902, Robert Lee was responsible for updating this principle of study.
Tinnitus is the sensation of a noise in the ear or head when no apparent source for the noise is evident. Tinnitus may be either subjective (perceived only by the patient) or objective (perceived by an examiner also). Virtually 95 to 98% of tinnitus is subjective, and 65 to 98% of tinnitus is idiopathic .
The dentist is often the first person who has the opportunity to detect mucosal alterations, such as ulcerations or white and red lesions in the oral cavity. Early diagnosis and proper management can prevent unfavorable outcomes in these patients. Indeed, chronic mucosal trauma resulting from sharp teeth and faulty restorations has