Articles published in this issue are Open Access and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY NC) where the readers can reuse, download, distribute the article in whole or part by mentioning proper credits to the authors.
Macular Microcirculation after Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment Repair Evaluated by OCT-Angiography
In the process of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD), retinal homeostasis may be adversely affected with resultant modifications in retinal and choroidal tissue. Hypoxia and nutrient deprivation along with inflammation at the detached retina may lead to morphological and microvascularity alterations. These changes imply that the functional status of the macula may not be entirely restored despite anatomical repair.
Focal Aggregates of Normal or Near Normal Uveal Melanocytes (FANNUMs) in the Choroid. A Practical Clinical Category of Small Ophthalmoscopically Evident Discrete Melanocytic Choroidal Lesions
Multiple types of discrete melanocytic choroidal lesions are currently recognized, including benign choroidal nevi, choroidal malignant melanomas, patches of choroidal melanocytosis, and foci of choroidal melanocytes stimulated paraneoplastically by a systemic nonmelanoma malignant neoplasm.
Mega-Dose Dietary Riboflavin in Treatment in Keratoconus, Post-Refractive Cornea Ectasia and Migraine. Has Its Time Arrived?
Recently, several studies and investigators have shown the beneficial effects of high dose dietary riboflavin (vitamin B2) in the treatment of keratoconus, post-refractive (LASIK, PRK & Radial Keratotomy) ectasia (with sunlight exposure) and patients treated with our own protocol (NIH Clinical Study – www.clinicaltrials.gov - # NCT 03095235) discovered significant relief for intractable migraine headaches and/or ophthalmic migraine (classic migraine visual symptoms without headache).
Multidisciplinary Acute Care of Central Retinal Artery Occlusion with a Stroke Paradigm: A Call to Action
Central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) is a painless ophthalmologic emergency with potential for irreversible vision loss. Similar to ischemic stroke, CRAO occurs when there is sudden obstruction of the central retinal artery, leading to ischemic injury to the retina and subsequent cell death. Continuous occlusion and ischemia of the retina progresses to permanent damage to retinal cells and loss of vision.
Generating Awareness and a Planned Multidisciplinary Treatment Approach Can Save Both the Sight and Life in Retinoblastoma in Developing Countries
While rare, retinoblastoma is the most common (1:16000 – 18000 live births) intraocular and life threatening tumor of childhood [1,2]. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), 66% of children present with symptoms before 2 years of age and 95% before 5 years of age. About 8000 new cases are detected annually with the highest incidence in Africa and India. In fact, more than 1400 cases each year are from India .
Comment on “Retinitis Pigmentosa and Molar Tooth Sign Caused by Novel AHI1 Compound Heterozygote Pathogenic Variants: A Case Report”
Joubert syndrome (JS) is a rare congenital neurodevelopmental disease which is basically a primary Ciliopathy. It’s characteristic manifestation on imaging is so called ‘molar tooth sign’ in the brainstem and cerebellum. JS can involve multiple organs, mainly including retina, kidney, bone and liver. Clinical signs of early onset JS include hypotonia, developmental delay, breathing abnormalities, and ocular motor apraxia.
Stroke and Visual Loss in a Young Girl with Dengue Fever – Report of a Case and a Mini Review
The case of a young girl with Dengue fever presenting with seizures and bilateral visual loss is presented. At the time of presentation, she had right hemiplegia and dysarthria but was not dysphasic. Fundoscopy revealed presence of macular and disc oedema in the right eye and vitreous haemorrhage in the left eye.
Uhthoff ’s Phenomenon as Presentation of COVID-19 Infection
This is the first reported case of COVID-19 associated optic neuritis (ON) presenting with classic Uhtoff’s phenomenon typically associated with multiple sclerosis (MS). Uhthoff phenomenon, also known as Uhthoff sign or syndrome, is a transient worsening of neurological function lasting less than 24 hours that can occur in multiple sclerosis patients due to increases in core body temperature.
Assessment of Visual Function for Education: A Commentary on ‘VEP Visual Acuity in Children with Cortical Visual Impairment’
Last year’s article In the International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology  highlighted that Cortical Visual Impairment (CVI) is now the leading cause of visual impairment in the developed world . It also provided a definition of CVI [3,4], and summarized its functional deficits, and methods of assessment.
Are Women with COVID-19 and Migraine Prone to AMN Type 2?
Acute macular neuroretinopathy (AMN), first described by Bos and Deutman in 1975 , is an infrequent yet increasingly diagnosed retinal condition, characterized by the acute onset of persisting paracentral scotomata with capricious vision loss in one or both eyes, associated with (peri)foveal petaloid (wedge-shaped) outer retinal lesions generally accepted to be caused by microvascular damage to the retinal capillary network of the macula [2,3].