Background: Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) are a rapidly advancing field which utilizes brain activity to control external devices for a myriad of functions, including the restoration of motor function. Clinically, BCIs have been especially impactful in patients who suffer from stroke-mediated damage. However, due to the rapid advancement in the field, there is a lack of accepted standards of practice. Therefore, the aim of this systematic review is to summarize the current literature published regarding the efficacy of BCI-based rehabilitation of motor dysfunction in stroke patients.
Methodology: This systematic review was performed in accordance with the guidelines set forth by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) 2020 statement. PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library were queried for relevant articles and screened for inclusion criteria by two authors. All discrepancies were resolved by discussion among both reviewers and subsequent consensus.
Results: 11/12 (91.6%) of studies focused on upper extremity outcomes and reported larger initial improvements for participants in the treatment arm (using BCI) as compared to those in the control arm (no BCI). 2/2 studies focused on lower extremity outcomes reported improvements for the treatment arm compared to the control arm.
Discussion/Conclusion: This systematic review illustrates the utility BCI has for the restoration of upper extremity and lower extremity motor function in stroke patients and supports further investigation of BCI for other clinical indications.
Brain Computer Interfaces, Clinical Neurology, Stroke