Inorganic microparticles are ubiquitous in the modern Western diet present as food additives and are actively scavenged by microfold (M) cells overlying human intestinal lymphoid aggregates. In Crohn’s disease (CD), inflammation is caused by the inability of the intestinal mucosa to sustain tolerance to gut luminal factors including bacteria and their by-products. Having large, highly charged surface areas dietary particles can avidly bind biomolecules such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The aim of this paper was to examine whether the dietary particle, titanium dioxide (TiO2), modified cellular immune responses to LPS differently in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from CD patients compared with healthy controls. Our data showed that LPS-associated particles predominantly stimulated release of IL-1β and induced concurrent cell death in peripheral monocytes following particle uptake in both health and disease. In addition, IL-1β release was increased more in CD patients compared with controls following particle stimulation. In conclusion, LPS adsorption to dietary particulates provides a mechanism for stimulation of phagocytic mononuclear cells and may cause aggravation of mucosal immune responses in inflammatory conditions of the bowel such as CD, irritable bowel syndrome, and autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia associated gastrointestinal conditions, by immune priming mediated through increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines.
Titanium dioxide, Lipopolysaccharide, IL-1β, TNF-α, Inflammation, Microparticles, Autism spectrum disorders, Schizophrenia