In the realm of DNA repair, base excision repair (BER) protein, APE1/Ref-1 (Apurinic/Apyrimidinic Endonuclease 1/Redox Effector - 1, also called APE1) has been studied for decades. However, over the past decade, APE1 has been established as a key player in reduction-oxidation (redox) signaling. In the review by Caston et al. (The multifunctional APE1 DNA repair-redox signaling protein as a drug target in human disease), multiple roles of APE1 in cancer and other diseases are summarized. In this Review, we aim to expand on the contributions of APE1 to various diseases and its effect on disease progression. In the scope of cancer, more recent roles for APE1 have been identified in cancer cell metabolism, as well as chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) and inflammation. Outside of cancer, APE1 signaling may be a critical factor in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and is also an emergent area of investigation in retinal ocular diseases. The ability of APE1 to regulate multiple transcription factors (TFs) and therefore multiple pathways that have implications outside of cancer, makes it a particularly unique and enticing target. We discuss APE1 redox inhibitors as a means of studying and potentially combating these diseases. Lastly, we examine the role of APE1 in RNA metabolism. Overall, this article builds on our previous review to elaborate on the roles and conceivable regulation of important pathways by APE1 in multiple diseases.
Redox effector factor 1, Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease, Redox signaling, Inflammation, Metabolism, Glycolysis, TCA cycle, OXPHOS, Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy, IBD, Crohn’s, Colitis