Aim: This study aimed to determine the socio-demographic determinants, patterns, and treatment outcomes of dental trauma patients treated at a Restorative Dentistry Unit, National Dental Hospital (Teaching) (NDTH), Sri Lanka.
Material and methods: This retrospective hospital-based study analyzed data of a total sample of 422 patients according to age, gender, cause, number, and the type of traumatized teeth from the clinical records of traumatized patients. The sample consisted of patients who attended the Restorative Dentistry Unit A of NDTH, Sri Lanka for traumatic dental injuries between January 2017 to January 2021. The data covered the period from 1st January 2017 to 1st January 2021. This period comprised the pre-COVID-19 era, and the COVID-19 era commenced from 11th March 2020, with the detection of the first local case and first and second waves of the pandemic. The data were entered and analyzed using SPSS-21 Statistical Software Package. The data are presented by frequency distributions and chi-square test of statistical significance for group comparisons in selected variables.
Results: Patients presented with dental trauma reflected a wider age ranged from 3 to 71 years thus reflecting the vulnerability to dental trauma across all ages from toddlers to older adults from which 65.6% were males and 34.5% were females. Only 34.5% of the patients sought treatment on the same day or the following day, while the most frequent cause for dental trauma was a fall (57.6%). Maxillary central incisors were the most affected teeth of the permanent teeth, and 67.2% had sustained uncomplicated fractures involving only the enamel and dentine.
When considering the treatment outcomes, 62.1% of patients have received coronal restorations, 30.6% root canal treatments and 7.1% had undergone extractions. 13.7% had received other treatments such as splinting and another 7.3 % have received extra-coronal restorations.
Conclusions: As emerged from the findings of the present study, there was a wide variation of ages from toddlers to older adults presented for restorative treatment due to dental trauma demonstrating their vulnerability across all ages overwhelmingly dominated by male gender. Almost two thirds of them received coronal restorations whilst nearly a one-third got root canal treatment as main outcome. Importantly, there was a significant delay in presenting for care among majority of patients for those traumatic injuries, it is therefore, strongly suggested that educational programs to be conducted for the public and parents of children to create awareness about the importance of seeking care for immediate management of traumatized teeth.
COVID-19, Trauma, Dental Injuries, Falls, Home, Lockdown, Treatments outcomes