Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) are a group of cancers that affect various parts of the head and neck, such as the lip, oral cavity, oropharynx, hypopharynx, and nasopharynx. In India, it accounts for approximately 30–40% of all cancers, while in the United States, it represents around 4% of all cancer cases. HNSCC is a significant contributor to cancer-related deaths globally. While smoking is linked to HNSCC, recent research has confirmed the importance of the human papillomavirus (HPV) in its development. Additionally, HNSCC is characterized by immune deficiencies, where the tumor microenvironment alters immune cell activity to facilitate carcinogenesis. However, researchers have identified novel immunotherapeutic targets for HNSCC, mainly by studying the involvement of inflammatory cells such as neutrophils, eosinophils, and macrophages. Unfortunately, patients with recurring malignancy and distant metastases have limited treatment options, with a prognosis of less than one year. Platinum-based chemotherapy, cetuximab, and other conventional therapies are used to treat recurrent and metastatic HNSCC. The pro and anti-tumor roles of neutrophils in cancer and immunotherapy are explored in this study, with a focus on HNSCC. The primary objective is to increase our understanding of HNSCC biology and immunobiology to uncover viable therapeutic options that are both valid and less cytotoxic.
Pro-inflammatory, Anti-inflammatory, Tumor associated neutrophils, Metastasis, Head and Neck carcinoma