Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is a major global health concern, with an estimated 50% of the world's population infected. The bacterium colonizes the stomach and is associated with a range of gastrointestinal diseases, including chronic gastritis, peptic ulcers, and gastric cancer. The current standard of care for H. pylori infection involves a combination of antibiotics and proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), but the widespread use of antibiotics has led to the development of antibiotic-resistant strains of H. pylori, making treatment more difficult. Recent advances in diagnostic strategies include the use of non-invasive tests and serological biomarkers. While the use of antibiotics and PPIs remains the primary treatment approach, there is a growing interest in alternative therapies, including botanical extracts, natural products, and traditional medicines. Recent research has also explored the potential of probiotics, phage therapy, and novel antibiotics, such as rifabutin and furazolidone, in the treatment of H. pylori infection. Recent studies have also explored the potential of artificial intelligence (AI) in the diagnosis and management of H. pylori infection. AI-assisted screening methods have identified novel botanical extracts and natural products with anti-H. pylori activity, providing new avenues for therapeutic development. Additionally, AI can improve diagnostic accuracy and treatment outcomes. Although these alternative approaches show promise, further research is needed to confirm their efficacy, safety, and optimal dosing. Novel therapies such as phage therapy and new antibiotics may provide an alternative to traditional treatments and help overcome antimicrobial resistance.
Anti-Helicobacter pylori activity, Alternative therapies, Botanical extracts, Artificial intelligence AI, Natural products