Introduction: From December 2019, the first cases of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection were reported and established a crisis for global health with a pandemic of coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19). The SARS-CoV-2 is a ß-coronavirus and until October 2020, more than 46 million confirmed cases and one million deaths were notified. The predominant clinical condition involves fever, dry cough and shortness of breath. However, gastrointestinal (GI) manifestations have been shown as an important clinical finding in the course of the disease. Moreover, the pathophysiology of these presentations is still the subject of studies but shows the interaction between the SARS-CoV-2 and Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme type 2 (ACE2), expressed in both the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts, as viral pathogenesis involved.
Methods: We surveyed relevant articles published in English and Portuguese in the PubMed and BVS databases.
Results: This review included 55 articles. The main GI manifestations of COVID-19 related are diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and GI bleeding. Yet, fecal-oral transmission appears as a possible route of transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and evaluation of these patients, as well as biomarkers hepatics have been described in severe cases and should be investigated.
Conclusion: Our work concludes that the SARS-CoV-2 infection can involve digestive symptoms, being valid a special attention to patients who present them. Thus, the aim of this review is to describe the relations between COVID-19 and gastrointestinal tract and its main findings as well.
COVID-19; Pandemic; Gastrointestinal Manifestations; Fecal-Oral Transmission