Mini Review Open Access
Volume 1 | Issue 2 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.33696/Gastroenterology.1.008

Gastric Cancer: A Brief Review, from Risk Factors to Treatment

  • 1Instituto Multidisciplinar em Saúde, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Vitória da Conquista 45029-094, Bahia, Brazil
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Corresponding Author

Fabrício Freire de Melo, freiremelo@yahoo.com.br

Received Date: May 18, 2020

Accepted Date: June 09, 2020


Gastric cancer (GC) is a globally relevant disease. It is the fifth most common neoplasm and the third most lethal in the world, being associated with more than 780,000 deaths in 2018. Developed countries tend to have a higher GC incidence, especially those located in Asia. GC development is associated with modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors, including Helicobacter pylori infection, unhealthy eating and lifestyle habits, advanced age, male gender, and low socioeconomic status. GC prevention involves H. pylori eradication, elimination of bad habits, and the use of screening methods. The classification systems for GC developed by the World Health Organization, Lauren, and Ming are the most used for GC staging and take into consideration the anatomical and histological characteristics. Furthermore, the recent characterization of the GC molecular profile has led to the proposal of new classification subgroups. The symptoms of GC are not pathognomonic and can include loss of appetite and weight, anemia, abdominal pain, early satiety, gastrointestinal bleedings, constipation, diarrhea, indigestion, vomiting, pyrosis, dysphagia, swelling of supraclavicular lymph nodes, and nodules in epigastric and umbilical regions. The diagnosis of GC is carried out through clinical evaluation followed by upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and biopsy. Computed tomography and endoscopic ultrasound are important diagnostic methods for the assessment of the disease. Moreover, the use of tumor markers as a diagnostic technique might be a possibility; however, more studies are needed to evaluate its accuracy. There is no universally recommended standard for the treatment of GC. Surgery is considered a potentially curative method. However, the association with a multimodal approach, such as chemotherapy and chemoradiotherapy, is strategic for improving survival.


Gastric cancer, Epidemiology, Diagnosis, Classification, Treatment

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