Introduction: One of the most significant current discussions in pediatrics is whether lumbar puncture (LP) should be performed in children with febrile seizure (FS) as in the past.
Objectives: We compared the prevalence of meningitis among FS children before and after the pentavalent vaccine to determine the importance of the LP in these children.
Methods: We performed a retrospective cross-sectional study on the prevalence and etiology of bacterial meningitis (BM) in 1314 children with FS before and after pentavalent vaccination.
Results: We found that complex FS was more prevalent in patients aged under 12 months compared to other patients. The peak incidence of aseptic meningitis and BM was in the age group of 12- to18- and 18- to 36-month-old, respectively (P value <0.001 and <0.05, respectively). Children with complex FS had a significantly higher rate of BM and a lower rate of seizure recurrence than those with simple FS (P value <0.05). There was a significant relationship between getting the pentavalent vaccine and reducing the prevalence of BM and Hib-induced BM, but no SP-induced BM (P value <0.05 and 0.05 and 0.104, respectively).
Conclusion: This study offers some insights into the effectiveness of the pentavalent vaccine. In addition, the low prevalence of BM in vaccinated FS cases does not support strong recommendations for LP in FS children.
Meningitis, Febrile seizure, Pentavalent vaccine, Lumbar puncture, Children