Since the discovery of the Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) by Blumberg et al. in 1965, significant progress has been made in understanding the pathogenesis of HBV. The nucleos(t)ide analogues (NAs) have succeeded in decreasing the viral loads to undetectable levels, and reduced the incidence of HCC significantly. However, risk of HCC persists due to the inability of eradicating the covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) in the hepatocyte nucleus that causes persistent HBV infection. Recently, a number of different drug targets are being identified that intervene on the viral replication cycle or the host immune system. In this review, we aim to discuss the immunopathogenesis of the virus, the effectiveness of NA’s, and recent therapeutic developments.
hepatitis B virus, HBV, Hepatocellular Carcinoma, Carcinoma, HCC