Objectives: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a lentivirus that causes HIV infection and over time acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The objective was to evaluate plasma levels of Calreticulin (CALR) in HIV positive and negative individuals.
Methods: A total of 164 participants were recruited and divided into four groups according to their viral load after estimation and individuals recruited as controls. Viral load was estimated in 1.1 ml of plasma according to manufacturers (COBAS Taqman HIV-1 Quantitative Test, v2.0, Roche Diagnostic GmbH, Germany). Plasma levels of CALR were analysed using ELISA (ELISA-Biotuva Life Sciences, UK).
Results: Result revealed a significant difference (p = 0.00) between the CALR levels of individuals with low viral load and individuals with unsuppressed viral load, suppressed viral load, and controls. A significantly (p = 0.017) higher plasma CALR in individuals with unsuppressed viral load compared to those with suppressed viral load was found. No differences between plasma CALR levels of individuals with unsuppressed viral load and that of controls.
Conclusion: Our study showed up regulation of plasma CALR in HIV-infected patients on long term antiretroviral therapy. We believe and from existing literature this up regulation is due partly if not solely to the oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress caused by the antiretroviral agents.
Plasma, Secretary Calreticulin, Calcium-Binding Molecular Chaperone Protein, HIV Infected Patients, Viral Load, Oxidative Stress, Lentivirus, Bauchi State