Exosomes, a type of extracellular vesicles (EVs), are secreted from cells and taken up again by other cell types. They have attracted attention as new intercellular communication factors involved in various biological processes. Multivesicular bodies (MVBs) are intracellular organelles that are sources of exosomes. Recently, molecular regulatory mechanisms of EVs and MVBs mediated by ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like proteins (UBLs) have been elucidated. These include regulation of MVBs by deubiquitinases and neddylation, ubiquitination of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (Her2), a well-known target of cancer therapy, the relationship between UBL3 and cancer, and the relationship between the novel coronavirus infection, COVID-19, and EVs. In this manuscript, we present recent progress in the field. Based on this information, we discuss novel potential therapeutic strategies for exosome-related diseases.
Ubiquitin-like protein, MVBs, Exosome, UBL3, SARS-CoV-2