Research Article Open Access
Volume 1 | Issue 1 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.33696/Anesthesia.1.002

Gender Disparities in Outcomes Following Pulmonary Embolism Treatment in the Intensive Care Unit; A Multi-center Retrospective Cohort Study

  • 1Department of Critical Care Medicine, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, China
  • 2Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, China
  • 3Shingli Oilfield Central Hospital, Shandong Province, China
  • 4Department of Critical Care Medicine, Linyi People’s Hospital, Shandong Province, China
  • 5Department of Critical Care Medicine, Zobo First Hospital, Shandong Province, China
  • 6Department of Critical Care Medicine, Dezhou People’s Hospital, Shandong Province, China
  • 7Department of Critical Care Medicine, Jinan Central Hospital, Shandong Province, China
+ Affiliations - Affiliations

Corresponding Author

Xiaomei Chen, chenxm008@163.com

Received Date: March 15, 2022

Accepted Date: April 18, 2022


Background: There is a limited literature on the survival rates of male and female patients in surviving pulmonary embolism in Intensive Care Units (ICU). As such, this calls for study of its disparities. Our study aims to compare gender disparities in outcomes following pulmonary embolism treatment in the ICU.

Methods: A multicenter retrospective cohort study was conducted between January 2013 and December 2020 where we analyzed and compared gender disparities followed by outcomes. Data were retrieved from hospital databases, and patient medical records of P.E patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) of six hospitals in China.

Results: The study included 100 confirmed pulmonary embolism patients with a mean age of 62 ± 14 years. Of them, 55 were female with co-morbidity chronic heart disease (20% vs. 4.4%), cigarette smokers (9.1% vs. 51.1%) all had (p<0.05) as compared to males. Also, females had APACHE II score of (17 ± 12 vs. 15 ± 10, p>0.05), 30-days and 6-months deaths, 4(7%) and 6(11%) with (p>0.05), respectively. Interestingly, sex-based outcomes on kidney injury revealed a statistically significant difference between females and males (p<0.05). In addition, there were also ssignificant differences in blood pressure between male and female non-survivors (p<0.05). Moreover, for non-survivors, factors attributed to mortality in descending order, were as follows; cardiopulmonary resuscitation (OR6.48, p<0.001) 95%CI, acute liver injury (OR6.23,p-0.02) 95%CI, vasopressors (OR5.46, p<0.001) 95%CI, acute kidney injury (OR5.27,p-0.02) 95%CI, mechanical ventilation (OR 4.90, p-0.02) 95%CI, acute respiratory failure (OR 4.00, p-0.02) 95%CI, APACHE II score (OR 1.07, p-0.03) 95%CI, Infections (OR 5.86, p-0.06) 95%CI, pH (OR 3.47, p-0.70) 95%CI, HCO3-(mmol/L) (OR 1.02, p-0.08) 95%CI, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (OR 0.16, p-0.04) 95%CI.

Conclusion: Our study revealed no statistically significant sex-based differences in PE severity, outcomes or co-morbidities, with the exception of renal damage, which has been proven to have a negative impact. PE-related consequences and co-morbidities have been identified as statistically significant contributors to poor prognosis and mortality.


Pulmonary embolism, Deep vein thrombosis, Acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II, Cardiopulmonary resuscitation

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