Editorial Open Access
Volume 1 | Issue 1 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.33696/Gastroenterology.1.002

DILI, HILI, RUCAM Algorithm, and AI, the Artificial Intelligence: Provocative issues, Progress, and Proposals

  • 1Department of Internal Medicine II, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Klinikum Hanau, Hanau, Academic Teaching Hospital of the Medical Faculty, Goethe University Frankfurt/ Main, Frankfurt/Main, Germany
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Corresponding Author

Rolf Teschke, rolf.teschke@gmx.de

Received Date: March 24, 2020

Accepted Date: May 04, 2020


Artificial Intelligence (AI) principles published in 1956 included the recommendation to use algorithms for solving complex processes. The creation of the Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method (RUCAM) was published in 1993 with integration of an intelligent algorithm to solve issues of causality assessment in cases of complex suspected drug induced liver injury (DILI) cases. Other causality assessment methods (CAMs) published before the era of AI and RUCAM followed rather general principles without precise and valid algorithm. From 2014 to 2019, 46,266 RUCAM based DILI cases have been published worldwide. The future of RUCAM, now to be used as the updated RUCAM published in 2016 that also includes herb induced liver injury (HILI), is encouraging and will help determine DILI and HILI case features more accurately and allow for better data comparision among countries.


Algorithm, Artificial Intelligence, AI, Liver injury, Drug induced liver injury, Herb induced liver injury, RUCAM

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