Nosocomial infections in the form of bacterial biofilms on medical implants continue to pose a significant challenge for medical professionals in its treatment. This review addresses the basic biofilm formation process and illustrates in detail its manifestation in causing chronic infections. Bacterial biofilms are described as a microbial consortium attached to a substratum by exopolymeric substances. Biofilms trap soluble organic compounds and act as a sink for nutrients as well as inorganic compounds. They immobilize extracellular enzymes and DNA, to propagate the microbial colony on implant surfaces, and manifest the disease. Frequently, the persistent chronic infections arise due to biofilm formation on the implanted devices and cause severe inconvenience to the patients. These infections are difficult to eradicate and require a strong antibiotics course, which can penetrate the biofilm to control, however, in some cases it warrants the removal of the implanted device. Finally, this review highlights recent advances in antimicrobial compounds that aid in preventing implant infections.
Bacteria, Biofilms, Nosocomial, Infections, Staphylococcus, Antimicrobials