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Chest Pain in Repeated Emergency Department Visitors

Chest pain is the leading symptom in 5 to 8% of all emergency department (ED) visits and is also one of the major reasons of repeated ED visits, causing around 6% of these cases [1]. Generally, in 15 to 25% of patients with chest pain, acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is the underlying cause.

Lipoprotein Apheresis: First FDA Indicated Treatment for Elevated Lipoprotein(a)

Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] is a genetically determined lowdensity lipoprotein (LDL) particle that is comprised of apolipoprotein(a) [apo(a)] and apolipoprotein B-100 (apoB) moieties. It is well-established that elevated Lp(a) is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD).

Paradoxical Low Flow Aortic Stenosis: A Clinical Dilemma

Internists as well as cardiologists often receive echocardiogram reports which failed to offer a clear definition of the aortic stenosis (AS) severity due to discordant data regarding the aortic valve gradients and the valve area. Sometimes AS appears severe according to the valve area criteria, in spite of the fact that gradients across the valve are not in the severe range.

Acute Success and Long-term Follow-up of Catheter Ablation of Isthmus-dependent Atrial Flutter; A Comparison of 10 mm Tip Standard, 6 mm Tip Irrigated Radiofrequency, and Cryotherapy Catheters

Various catheter ablation technologies have evolved to improve the procedural success and safety of cavotricuspid isthmus (CTI) block. Numerous studies have compared the different energy types, catheter tip sizes, and energy settings.

A View on the Contribution of Hedgehog Signalling to Ventricular Septal Development

The ventricular septal defect (VSD) is the most frequent congenital heart disease in humans. It is defined as an opening in the septum separating the left and the right ventricle. This gap results in a mixture of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood and in an enhanced blood flow towards the lung and the left ventricle, a condition that leads to severe diseases such as left ventricular hypertrophy as well as pulmonary edema and dilatation.